United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration
Environment
Environmental Review Toolkit
Home Planning and Environment NEPA and Project Development Accelerating Project Delivery Historic Preservation Section 4(f) Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife
spacer Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife
spacer
        Next >

State Plant Listings

West Virginia

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

87 Northeastern Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
94 Mixed Mesophytic Forest (Acer-Aesculus-Fagus Liriodendron-Quercus-Tilia)
95 Appalachian Oak Forest (Quercus)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pinus)

Botanical Experts

Paul "P. J." Harmon
West Virginia Division of Natural Resources
PO Box 67
Elkins, WV 26241
(304) 637-0245
(304) 637-0250 (fax)
Internet: pjharmon@wvdnr.gov

Recommended Flora

Harmon, P.J.; J.T. Kartesz; C.M. Jessee; B.R. McDonald; B.D. Sargent. 1966. Checklist of the Vascular Flora of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Wildlife Resources Bulletin 95-1. WV Division of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Section. Elkins, WV ($5/copy).

Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia, 2nd Edition. Seneca Books, Grantsville, WV. ISBN 0890920109.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in West Virginia

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Dryopteris marginalia (marginal wood fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalia (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Thelypteris simulata (Massachusetts fern)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum hack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Astilbe biternata (false goatsbeard)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia australis (blue wild indigo)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Chrysogonum virginianum (green-and-gold)
Chrysopsis mariana (Maryland golden aster)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane, black cohosh)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Collinsonia canadensis (stoneroot, citronella horsebalm)
Coreopsis auriculata (early coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dicentra eximia (wild bleeding heart)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum doe-pye weed)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum doe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Gentiana clausa (bottle gentian)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heuchera americana var. hirsuticaulis (alumroot)
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow, marshmallow hibiscus)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Houstonia longifolia var. longifolia (long-leaved bluets, pale bluets)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star, gayfeather)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linum virginianum (woodland flax)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Manfreda virginica (rattlesnake master, false aloe)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda didyma (beebalm, oswego tea)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon hirsutus (hairy beardtongue)
Phlox divaricata (blue woodland phlox, sweet William)
Phlox paniculata (summer phlox, perennial phlox)
Phlox stolonifera (creeping phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia fulgida (black-eyed Susan, orange coneflower)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silene virginica (fire pink)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Thermopsis villosa (bush pea)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Tradescantia virginiana (Virginia spiderwort, spider lily)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, indigo bush)
Calycanthus floridus (Carolina allspice, sweet shrub)
Castanea pumila (chinquapin)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray. dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron arborescens (smooth azalea)
Rhododendron calendulaceum (flame azalea)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxterbloom azalea)
Rhododendron prinophyllum (roseshell azalea, early azalea)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Vaccinium corymbosom (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaultheria hispidula (creeping snowberry)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Rhododendron catawbiense (purple rhododendron, red laurel)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay, great laurel)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Aesculus flava (sweet buckeye, yellow buckeye)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree, old man's beard)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fagus grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree)
Malus angustifolia (southern crabapple, wild crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Ilex opaca (American holly, Christmas holly)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum (fluviatile)
Northeastern (Barbed bristle) bulrush (Scirpus ancistrochaetus)
Running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum)
Shale barren rock-cress (Arabis serotina)
Virginia spiraea (Spiraea virginiana)

West Virginia Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do,, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed Law)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
1900 Kanawha Boulevard East
Charleston, WV 25305

John Hinz
West Virginia University
PO Box 6100
Morgantown, WV 26506
(304) 293-2219

West Virginia Resources

The Nature Conservancy
723 Kanawha Boulevard East
Charleston, WV 25301
(304) 345-4350

West Virginia Native Plant Society
PO Box 2755
Elkins, WV 26241

Barbara Sargent
Environmental Resources Specialist
West Virginia Natural Heritage Program
(304) 637-0245
(304) 637-0250 (fax)
Internet: barbarasargent@wvdnr.gov

        Next >

Questions and feedback should be directed to Marlys Osterhues (marlys.osterhues@dot.gov, 202-366-2052).

spacer
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000