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Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

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State Plant Listings

Alabama

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

74 Cedar Glades (Quercus-Juniperus-Sporobolus)
80 Blackbelt (Liquidambar-Quercus Juniperus)
91 Oak-Hickory Forest (Quercus-Carya)
94 Mixed Mesophytic Forest (Acer-Aesculus-Fagus-Liriodendron Quercus-Tilia)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pinus)
102 Southern Mixed Forest (Fagus-Liquidambar-Magnolia-Pinus-Quercus)
103 Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus Nyssa-Taxodium)

Botanical Experts

Al Schotz, Community Ecologist/Botanist
Alabama Natural Heritage Program
Huntingdon College, Massey Hall
1500 E. Fairview Avenue
Montgomery, AL 36106
aschotz@zebra.net

Recommended Flora

Radford, A.E.; H.E. Ahles; C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pgs.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Alabama

Cacti

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum capillus-veneris (southern maidenhair fern)
Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris kunthii (southern shield fern, wood fern, river fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)
Woodwardia virginica (Virginia chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Aphanostephus skirrhobasis (lazy daisy)
Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Dracopsis amplexicaulis (clasping leaf coneflower)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket, firewheel)
Glandularia canadensis (rose vervain, sweet William)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Ipomopsis rubra (standing cypress)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Monarda citriodora (horsemint, lemon beebalm, lemon mint)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Sabatia brevifolia (narrow-leaved sabatia)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Amsonia ciliata (blue funnel lily, blue star)
Amsonia tabernaemontana (blue star)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum Back-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias amplexicaulis (milkweed)
Asclepias humistrata (milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias variegata (milkweed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Callirhoe papaver (poppy mallow)
Calylophus berlandieri (square-bud primrose, sundrops)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Canna flaccida (golden canna)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone lyonii (turtlehead)
Chrysopsis mariana (Maryland golden aster)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Collinsonia canadensis (stoneroot, citronella horsebalm)
Coreopsis auriculata (early coreopsis)
Coreopsis grandiflora (coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis pubescens (coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Delphinium carolinianum (blue larkspur)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Hedyotis nigricans (bluets)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus debilis (sunflower)
Helianthus microcephalus (sunflower)
Helianthus simulans (narrow-leaved sunflower, swamp sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Heuchera americana var. hirsuticaulis (alumroot)
Hibiscus laevis (halberd-leaved marsh mallow)
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow, marshmallow hibiscus)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Houstonia longifolia var. longifolia (long-leaved bluets, pale bluets)
Houstonia procumbens (innocence)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hymenocallis caroliniana (spider lily, rain lily)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Iris hexagona (flag iris)
Iris verna (dwarf flag iris)
Iris virginica (southern blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Kosteletzkya virginica (seashore mallow)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris cylindracea (dwarf blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris elegans (gayfeather)
Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Lilium catesbaei (pine lily)
Lilium michauxii (Carolina lily)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Manfreda virginica (rattlesnake master, false aloe)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda didyma (beebalm, oswego tea)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Monarda punctata (beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Orontium aquaticum (golden club)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon australis (beardtongue)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon smallii (small's beardtongue)
Penstemon tenuiflorus (beardtongue)
Phlox carolina (Carolina phlox)
Phlox divaricata (blue woodland phlox, sweet william)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet william)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia fulgida (black-eyed Susan, orange coneflower)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silene virginica (fire pink)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium atlanticum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Spigelia marilandica (Indian pink)
Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Thermopsis villosa (bush pea)
Tradescantia hirsuticaulis (hairy spiderwort)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola affinis (Florida violet)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish dagger)
Zephyranthes atamasca (atamasco lily, Easter lily)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon ternarius (splitbeard bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Chasmanthium latifolium (inland sea oats, wild oats, river oats, broad-leaf uniola)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Muhlenbergia capillaris (gulf muhly, hair grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Saccharum giganteum (sugarcane plume grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina patens (marsh hay cordgrass, salt meadow cordgrass)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamma grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Aesculus sylvatica (buckeye)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Baccharis halimifolia (sea myrtle, groundsel bush)
Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, French mulberry)
Calycanthus floridus (Carolina allspice, sweet shrub)
Castanea pumila (chinquapin)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Clethra alnifolia (summer sweet)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla sessilifolia (southern bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Erythrina herbacea (coral bean)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet)
Fothergilla major (witch alder)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina buckthorn)
Hibiscus coccineus (wild red mallow)
Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)
Hydrangea quercifolia (oakleaf hydrangea)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Itea virginica (Virginia willow, sweetspire, tassel-white)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lycium carolinianum (Christmas berry, matrimony vine)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Rhododendron atlanticum (dwarf, or coastal azalea)
Rhododendron canescens (wild, piedmont, or sweet azalea)
Rhododendron calendulaceum (flame azalea)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhododendron arborescens (smooth azalea)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sideroxylon lanuginosum ssp. lanuginosum (chittamwood, gum elastic tree)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Stewartia malacodendron (silky camellia)
Styrax americanus (American silverbells)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry, farkleberry)
Vaccinium corymbosom (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)
Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)
Viburnum rufidulum (southern or rusty black haw)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gordonia lasianthus (loblolly bay, gordonia)
Ilex glabra (inkberry, bitter gallberry)
Ilex vomitoria (yaupon)
Illicium floridanum (Florida anise tree)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Leucothoe axillaris (coast leucothoe)
Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle, southern bayberry, candleberry)
Rhododendron carolinianum (Carolina rhododendron)
Rhododendron catawbiense (purple rhododendron, red laurel)
Sabal minor (dwarf palmetto)
Serenoa repens (saw palmetto)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer barbatum (Florida maple, southern sugar maple)
Acer leucoderme (chalk maple)
Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Aesculus flava (sweet buckeye, yellow buckeye)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Aesculus pavia var. pavia (red buckeye)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, muscle wood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree, old man's beard)
Cladrastis kentukea (yellowwood)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Cotinus obovatus (smoke tree)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Cyrilla racemiflora (leatherwood, yiti)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Halesia diptera (American snowdrop tree, two-winged silverbell)
Halesia tetraptera (Carolina silverbell)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex decidua (possum-haw, deciduous holly)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree)
Magnolia pyramidata (pyramid magnolia)
Magnolia tripetala (umbrella tree)
Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay, swampbay)
Malus angustifolia (southern crabapple, wild crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hop hornbeam)
Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hop tree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus laurifolia (laurel oak)
Quercus lyrata (overcup oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus prinus (rock chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus shumardii (shumard oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Chamaecyparis thyoides (white cedar)
Ilex opaca (American holly, Christmas holly)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia)
Magnolia macrophylla (umbrella tree)
Persea borbonia (red bay)
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus elliotii (slash, pitch, or yellow slash pine)
Pinus glabra (spruce pine)
Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)
Prunus caroliniana (cherry laurel)
Quercus virginiana (live oak, coastal live oak, southern live oak)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Bignonia capreolata (cross vine)
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis crispa (leather flower)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape)

Vine (evergreen)

Gelsemium sempervirens (yellow jessamine, Carolina jessamine)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Listed species under Fish and Wildlife Service jurisdiction

Alabama canebrake pitcher-plant (Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis)
Alabama leather-flower (Clematis socialis)
Alabama streak-sorus fern (Thelypteris pilosa var. Alabamensis)
American hart's-tongue fern (Asplenium scolopendrium var. Americanum)
Gentian pinkroot (Spigelia gentianoides)
Green pitcher-plant (Sarracenia oreophila)
Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum (fluviatile)
Kral's water plantain (Sagittaria secundifuolia)
Leafy prairie-clover (Dalea (Petalostemum foliosa)
Little amphianthus (Amphianthus pusillus)
Lyrate bladderpod (Lesquerella lyrata)
Mohr's Barbara's buttons (Marshallia mohrii)
Morefield's leather-flower (Clematis morefieldii)
Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)
Price's potato-bean (Apios priceana)
Relict trillium (Trillium reliquum)
Rock cress (Arabis perstellata)
Tennessee yellow-eyed grass (Xyris tennesseensis)

Alabama Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Seed Law only)

Plant Protection Division
Department of Agriculture
PO Box 3336
Montgomery, AL 36109

John W. Everest
Agronomy and Soils
107 Extension Hall
Auburn University, AL 36849
(334) 844-5493

Alabama Resources

Alabama Natural Heritage Program
Huntingdon College, Massey Hall
1500 E. Fairview Avenue
Montgomery, AL 36106
(334) 834-4519
(334) 834-5439 (fax)

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
2821-C Second Avenue
South Birmingham, AL 35233

Alabama Wildflower Society
240 Ivy Lane
Auburn, AL 36830

Department of Agriculture
Birhard Beard Bldg.
PO Box 3336
Montgomery, AL 36193
(334) 242-2650

Alabama Forestry Commission
513 Madison Avenue
Montgomery, AL 36130
(334) 240-9300

Alabama Cooperative Extension Service
109 Duncan Hall
Auburn University, AL 36849
(334) 844-5544

Birmingham Botanical Garden
Kaul Wildflower Garden
2512 Lane Park Road
Birmingham, AL 35223

University of Alabama Arboretum
Department of Biology
Box 870344
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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