Environmental Review Toolkit
Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

        Next >

State Plant Listings

Arkansas

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

74 Cedar Glades (Quercus Juniperus-Sporobolus)
75 Cross Timbers (Quercus-Andropogon)
91 Oak Hickory Forest (Quercus-Carya)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pinus)
103 Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus-Nyssa-Taxodium)

Botanical Experts

Theo Witsell
Botanist
ph: 501.324.9615
theo@arkansasheritage.org

Recommended Flora

Smith, E.B. 1988. An Atlas and Annotated List of the Vascular Plants of Arkansas, 2nd Ed. Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. 72701

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Arkansas

Cacti

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)
Opuntia macrorhiza (common prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum capillus-veneris (southern maidenhair fern)
Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Marsilea macropoda (water clover)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Woodwardia virginica (Virginia chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Aphanostephus skirrhobasis (lazy daisy)
Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Castilleja indivisa (Indian paintbrush)
Centaurea americana (basket flower)
Dracopsis amplexicaulis (clasping leaf coneflower)
Eryngium leavenworthii (Leavenworth eryngo)
Euphorbia marginata (snow-on-the-mountain)
Eustoma russellianum (prairie or catchfly gentian, Texas bluebell)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket, firewheel)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Helianthus petiolaris (plains sunflower)
Lesquerella gracilis (bladderpod)
Lindheimera texana (Texas star, Lindheimer daisy)
Monarda citriodora (horsemint, lemon beebalm, lemon mint)
Nemophila phacelioides (baby blue eyes)
Palafoxia callosa (small palafoxia)
Sabatia campestris (prairie rose gentian, prairie sabatia, meadow pink)
Sedum nuttallianum (yellow stonecrop)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium stellatum (wild pink onion)
Amsonia ciliata (blue funnel lily, blue star)
Amsonia tabernaemontana (blue star)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster sericeus (silky aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia alba var. macrophylla (cream false indigo, plains wild indigo)
Callirhoe digitata (finger poppy mallow)
Callirhoe involucrata (purple poppy mallow, winecup)
Callirhoe papaver (poppy mallow)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane, black cohosh)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Cooperia drummondii (rain lily, prairie lily)
Coreopsis grandiflora (coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Dalea candida (white prairie clover)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Delphinium carolinianum (blue larkspur)
Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (prairie larkspur)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Engelmannia pinnatifida (Engelmann daisy)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erysimum capitatum (western wallflower, prairie rocket)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana alba (cream gentian, yellow gentian)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida (prairie verbena, Dakota vervain)
Glandularia canadensis (rose vervain, sweet William)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Helianthus simulans (narrow-leaved sunflower, swamp sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera americana var. hirsuticaulis (alumroot)
Hieracium longipilum (hairy hawkweed)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hymenocallis caroliniana (spider lily, rain lily)
Hymenopappus artemisiifolius (old plainsman, woolly white)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Ipomopsis rubra (standing cypress)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Iris virginica v. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris cylindracea (dwarf blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris elegans (gayfeather)
Liatris mucronata (narrow-leaf gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris punctata (dotted blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Linum virginianum (woodland flax)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Manfreda virginica (rattlesnake master, false aloe)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mimosa quadrivalvis var. angustata (catclaw sensitive briar)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Oenothera macrocarpa (Missouri evening primrose)
Oenothera speciosa (showy white evening primrose)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Phlox carolina (Carolina phlox)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet william)
Phlox paniculata (summer phlox, perennial phlox)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia digitalis (obedient plant)
Physostegia intermedia (obedient plant)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted. buttercup)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia fulgida (black-eyed Susan, orange coneflower)
Rudbeckia grandiflora (large coneflower)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Rudbeckia subtomentosa (sweet black-eyed Susan)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia azurea var. grandiflora (blue sage)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Sedum ternatum (wild stonecrop)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silene virginica (fire pink)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Silphium terebinthinaceum (prairie dock)
Sisyrinchium mucronatum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Spigelia marilandica (Indian pink)
Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Thelesperma filifolium var. filifolium (thelesperma, greenthread)
Tradescantia hirsuticaulis (hairy spiderwort)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Vernonia baldwinii (ironweed, western ironweed)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola missouriensis (Missouri violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Yucca arkansana (Arkansas yucca, softleaf yucca)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon ternarius (splitbeard bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Aristida purpurea (purple three awn)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Chasmanthium latifolium (inland sea oats, wild oats, river oats, broad-leaf uniola)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis intermedia (plains lovegrass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Muhlenbergia capillaris (gulf muhly, hair grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Saccharum giganteum (sugarcane plume grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Acacia angustissima (fern acacia, whiteball acacia)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Baccharis halimifolia (sea myrtle, groundsel bush)
Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, French mulberry)
Castanea pumila (chinquapin)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus drummondii (rough-leaf dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Erythrina herbacea (coral bean)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet)
Fothergilla major (witch alder)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina buckthorn)
Hamamelis vernal is (vernal witch hazel)
Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Itea virginica (Virginia willow, sweetspire, tassel-white)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus gracilis (Oklahoma plum)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron canescens (wild, piedmont, or sweet azalea)
Rhododendron prinophyllum (roseshell azalea, early azalea)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Ribes odoratum (buffalo currant, golden currant)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Styrax americanus (American silverbells)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry, farkleberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)
Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)
Viburnum rufidulum (southern or rusty black haw)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Ilex vomitoria (yaupon)
Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle, southern bayberry, candleberry)
Sabal minor (dwarf palmetto)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer barbatum (Florida maple, southern sugar maple)
Acer leucoderme (chalk maple)
Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Aesculus pavia var. pavia (red buckeye)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya texana (black hickory)
Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree, old man's beard)
Cladrastis kentukea (yellowwood)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Cotinus obovatus (smoke tree)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus marshallii (parsley hawthorn)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington hawthorn)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex decidua (possum-haw, deciduous holly)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree)
Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay, swampbay)
Malus angustifolia (southern crabapple, wild crabapple)
Malus ioensis var. ioensis (prairie crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus lyrata (overcup oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus shumardii (shumard oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sapindus saponaria var. drummondii (soapberry)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus crassifolia (cedar elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Ilex opaca (American holly, Christmas holly)
Juniperus ashei (rock or post cedar, Ashe or Mexican juniper)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress)

Vines (deciduous)

Bignonia capreolata (cross vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis crispa (leatherflower)
Clematis pitcheri (leather flower, purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape)
Wisteria frutescens (wisteria)

Vine (evergreen)

Gelsemium sempervirens (yellow jessamine, Carolina jessamine)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)
Geocarpon minimum (no common name)
Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum (=fluviatile)
Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)
Running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum)

Arkansas Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Seed Law only)

State Plant Board
Plant Industry Division
PO Box 1 Q69
Little Rock, AR 72203

John Boyd
University of Arkansas, Box 391
2301 South University
Little Rock, AR 72203

Arkansas Resources

Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission
1400 Tower Building
323 Center Street
Little Rock, AR 72201
(501) 324-9150
(501) 324-9618 (fax)

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
601 N. University Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72205
(501) 663-6699

Arkansas Native Plant Society
Department of Forest Resources
University of Arkansas at Monticello
Monticello, AR 71655

State Plant Board
1 Natural Resources Drive
PO Box 1069
Little Rock, AR 72203
(501) 225-1598

State Extension Services - Forestry
University of Arkansas
PO Box 3468
Monticello, AR 71665
(501) 460-1049

Arkansas Arboretum
Pinnacle Mountain State Park
11901 Pinnacle Valley Road
Roland, AR 72135

        Next >

Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

spacer
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate

Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000