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State Plant Listings

Iowa

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

66 Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum)
73 Mosaic of 66 (Bluestem Prairie) and 91 (Oak-Hickory Forest)
89 Northern floodplain Forest (Populus Salix-Ulmus)
90 Maple-Basswood Forest (Aces-Tilia)
91 Oak-Hickory Forest (Quercus-Carya)

Botanical Experts

John Pearson, Plant Ecologist
Iowa Department of Natural Resources
Wallace State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50319-0034
(515) 281-3891
(515) 281-6794 (fax)

Recommended Flora

Eilers, L.J. and D.M. Roosa. 1994. The Vascular Plants of Iowa: An Annotated Checklist and Natural History. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, IA. 304 pgs. + illus., maps. ISBN 0877454639; 0877454647 (paperback).

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Iowa

Cacti

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)
Opuntia macrorhiza (common prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium stellatum (wild pink onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek:)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Aster sericeus (silky aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia alba var. macrophylla (cream false indigo, plains wild indigo)
Baptisia australis (blue wild indigo)
Callirhoe involucrata (purple poppy mallow, winecup)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Castilleja sessiliflora (downy painted cup)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane, black cohosh)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Dalea candida (white prairie clover)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (prairie larkspur)
Delphinium carolinianum (blue larkspur)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved purple coneflower)
Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Filipendula rubra (queen-of-the-prairie)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gaura coccinea (scarlet gaura)
Gentiana alba (cream gentian, yellow gentian)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geum triflorum (prairie smoke, purple avens)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Hedyotis nigricans (bluets)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian sunflower)
Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)
Helianthus petiolaris (plains sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera richardsonii (alum root)
Hieracium longipilum (hairy hawkweed)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypericum ascyron (great St. John's wort)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Iris virginica v. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris cylindracea (dwarf blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris punctata (dotted blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nothocalais cuspidata (prairie dandelion)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera rhombipetala (diamond-petal primrose, four-point evening primrose)
Oenothera speciosa (showy white evening primrose)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon albidus (white beardtongue)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon grandiflorus (large-flowered penstemon)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet william)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifida (pasque flower, wild crocus)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Rudbeckia subtomentosa (sweet black-eyed Susan)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Sabatia campestris (prairie rose gentian, prairie sabatia, meadow pink)
Salvia azurea var. grandiflora (blue sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Sedum ternatum (wild stonecrop)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Silphium terebinthinaceum (prairie dock)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Sphaeralcea coccinea (scarlet globe mallow)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Vernonia baldwinii (ironweed, western ironweed)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola missouriensis (Missouri violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Yucca glauca (yucca, soapweed)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon hallii (sand bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (red three awn)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Bromus kalmii (prairie brome, wild chess)
Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Calamovilfa longifolia (sandreed grass, prairie sandreed)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa spartea (porcupine grass)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, indigo bush)
Amorpha nana (dwarf wild indigo)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate- leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus drummondii (rough-leaf dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus pumila var. besseyi (sand cherry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Ribes odoratum (buffalo currant, golden currant)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Shepherdia argentea (silver buffaloberry)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper, creeping savin)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Malus ioensis var. ioensis (prairie crabapple)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus nigra (Canada plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis (purple clematis)
Clematis pitcheri (leather flower, purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)
Mead's milkweed (Asclepias meadii)
Northern wild monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense)
Prairie bush-clover (Lespedeza leptostachya)
Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara)

Iowa Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed Only)

Department of Agriculture
Entomology/Seed
Wallace Building E. 9th
Des Moines, IA 50319

Robert Hartzler
2104 Agronomy Hall
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011
(515) 294-1923

Iowa Resources

Iowa Natural Areas Inventory
Department of Natural Resources
Wallace State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-8524

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
431 East Locust Street, Ste. 200
Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 244-5044

Des Moines Botanical Center
909 East River Drive
Des Moines, IA 50316

Kirk Henderson
Daryl Smith
Tallgrass Native Vegetation Center
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614
(319) 273-2813

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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