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State Plant Listings

Idaho

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

4 Fir-Hemlock Forest (Abies-Tsuga)
10 Western Ponderosa forest (Pinus)
11 Douglas Fir Forest (Pseudotsuga)
12 Cedar-Hemlock Pine Forest (Thuja-Tsuga-Pinus)
13 Grand Fir-Douglas Fir Forest (Abies Pseudotsuga)
14 Western Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
31 Mountain Mahogany-Oak Scrub (Cercocarpus-Quercus)
34 Saltbrush-Geasewood (Artiplex-Sarcobatus)
39 Desert: Vegetation Largely Absent
43 Fescue-Wheatgrass (Festuca-Agropyron)
44 Wheatgrass-Bluegrass (Agropyron-Poa)
49 Sagebrush Steppe (Artemisia-Agropyron)

Botanical Experts

Lynn Kinter
Idaho Conservation Data Center
600 South Walnut, Box 25
Boise, ID 83707
(208) 334-3402
(208) 334-2114 (fax)
Email: lynn.kinter@idfg.idaho.gov

Recommended Flora

For Northern and Central Idaho: Hitchcock, C.L. and A. Cronquist 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 730 pgs. + illus.

For Southern Idaho: Cronquist, A. 1994. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A: Vol. 5: Asterales. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 496 pgs. + illus. maps. ISBN 0893273759.

Cronquist, A. 1972-97. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Idaho

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Aspidotis densa (rock brake, cliff brake, Indian's dream)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cheilanthes gracillima (lace fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Polystichum munitum (western sword fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Cleome serrulata (Rocky Mountain beeplant)
Collinsia parviflora var. grandiflora (blue lips)
Collomia grandiflora (collomia)
Erysimum capitatum (western wallflower, prairie rocket)
Gilia capitata (globe gilia, blue gilia)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Ipomopsis aggregata (sky rocket, scarlet gilia)
Layia glandulosa (tidy tips)
Lepidium montanum (mountain peppergrass)
Mentzelia laevicaulis (blazing star, evening star, stick leaf)
Mimulus guttatus (golden monkey flower)
Nemophila breviflora (Great Basin nemophila)
Townsendia exscapa (Easter daisy)

Forbs (perennials)

Abronia fragrans (sweet sand verbena)
Aconitum columbianum (western monkshood)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia coerulea (Rocky Mountain or blue columbine)
Aquilegia flavescens (yellow columbine)
Aquilegia formosa (scarlet columbine)
Arnica cordifolia (heartleaf arnica)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Asarum caudatum (wild ginger)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
Aster ascendens (purple aster, Pacific aster)
Aster foliaceus (leafy aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster sibiricus (Sibirian or arctic aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Balsamorrhiza sagittata (balsamroot)
Calochortus macrocarpus (bigpod mariposa)
Calochortus nuttallii (sego lily, mariposa lily)
Caltha leptosepala (white marsh marigold, elkslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Castilleja angustifolia var. dubia (desert paintbrush)
Castilleja linariifolia (Indian paintbrush)
Castilleja sulphurea (splitleaf Indian paintbrush)
Claytonia lanceolata (spring beauty)
Clematis hirsutissima (clematis, vase flower, leather flower, lion's beard)
Clintonia uniflora (bride's bonnet, queen cup, bead lily)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Delphinium glaucum (tower larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dodecatheon jeffreyi (Jeffrey's shooting stars)
Dryas octopetala (mountain dryas, white mountain avens)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Epilobium canum var. latifolia (hummingbird trumpet)
Epilobium latifolium (dwarf fireweed)
Epilobium obcordatum (rock fringe)
Erigeron compositus (alpine daisy)
Erigeron speciosus (showy fleabane)
Eriogonum umbellatum (sulfur buckwheat)
Eriophyllum lanatum (woolly sunflower, Oregon sunshine)
Erythronium grandiflorum (glacier lily, yellow fawn lily, dogtooth violet)
Fritillaria lanceolata (checker lily, mission bells, chocolate lily)
Gaillardia aristata (blanket flower, gaillardia, brown-eyed Susan)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gaura coccinea (scarlet gaura)
Geranium viscossisimum (sticky wild geranium)
Geum triflorum (prairie smoke, purple avens)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Hedysarum boreale (sweet vetch, sweet broom)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Heliomeris multiflora (showy goldeneye)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera micrantha (common alumroot)
Heuchera parvifolia (saxifrage, alum root)
Heuchera rubescens (mountain alumroot, red alumroot, wild coralbells)
Iris missouriensis (Rocky Mountain iris, western blue flag)
Lewisia rediviva (bitter root)
Lilium columbianum (Columbia lily, Oregon lily, wild tiger lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Linum lewisii (wild blue flax)
Luetkea pectinata (Alaska spiraea, partridge foot)
Lupinus argenteus (silvery lupine)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mertensia ciliata (mountain bluebells)
Mimulus lewisii (Lewis monkey flower, great purple monkey flower)
Mimulus primuloides (primrose monkey flower)
Minuartia obtusiloba (cushion sandwort)
Monardella odoratissima (coyote mint, mountain pennyroyal)
Oenothera brachycarpa (evening primrose)
Oenothera cespitosa (gumbo evening primrose, gumbo lily)
Oenothera flava (Shortfin evening primrose)
Pedicularis groenlandica (elephant heads)
Penstemon deustus (hot rock penstemon)
Penstemon fruticosus (shrubby penstemon)
Penstemon speciosus (sagebrush penstemon)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Petrophytum caespitosum (dwarf spiraea, petrophytum, tufted rockmat)
Phacelia sericea (silky phacelia)
Phlox diffusa (mat phlox)
Phlox speciosa (showy phlox)
Polemonium occidentale (Jacob's ladder)
Polemonium pulcherrimum (alpine Jacob's ladder, skunk leaf)
Polemonium viscosum (sky pilot)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus alismifolius (meadow buttercup)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Satureja douglasii (yerba buena)
Saxifraga bronchialis (spotted saxifrage, matted saxifrage)
Saxifraga cespitosa (tufted saxifrage)
Saxifraga oppositifolia (purple saxifrage)
Sidalcea neomexicana (checker mallow, prairie mallow)
Silene acaulis (moss campion)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago multiradiata (northern goldenrod, mountain goldenrod)
Sphaeralcea coccinea (scarlet globe mallow)
Sphaeralcea munroana (Munro's globe mallow, white-leaven globe mallow)
Tellima grandiflora (fringe cup)
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. montana (golden pea, buckbean)
Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (sugar scoop, western foam flower)
Trillium ovatum (coast trillium, western wakerobin)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Viola glabella (smooth yellow or stream violet)
Viola nuttallii (yellow violet)
Xerophyllum tenax (beargrass)
Zizia aptera (heart-leave golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis exarata (spikebent, spike red top)
Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (red tree awn)
Bromus carinatus (California brome)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex nebrascensis (Nebraska sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Danthonia californica (California oatgrass)
Danthonia intermedia (timber oatgrass)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Dichanthelium acuminatum var. acuminatum (panic grass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye)
Elymus lanceolatus (thickspike wheatgrass)
Festuca idahoensis (Idaho fescue, blue bunchgrass)
Festuca ovina (sheep fescue)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Leymus cinereus (Great Basin wild rye)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Phleum alpinum (alpine timothy)
Poa alpina (alpine bluegrass)
Poa secunda (pine bluegrass)
Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa nelsonii (Columbia needlegrass)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Amelanchier utahensis (Utah serviceberry)
Artemisia frigida (prairie sagewort, fringed sage)
Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush, wingscale)
Atriplex confertifolia (spiny saltbush, shadscale saltbush, hop sage)
Betula nana (bog birch, dwarf birch)
Ceanothus sanguineus (redstem ceanothus, wild lilac)
Chamaebatiaria millefolium (fernbush, desert sweet, tansy bush)
Chrysothamnus nauseosus (rabbit brush, chamisa)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Crataegus douglasii (black hawthorn)
Elaeagnus commutata (silverberry, wild olive, wolf willow)
Holodiscus discolor (cream bush, ocean spray, mountain spray)
Holodiscus dumosus (bush rock-spires, cream bush, ocean spray)
Krascheninnikovia lanata (winterfat)
Lonicera involucrata (black twinberry, bear berry honeysuckle)
Philadelphus lewisii (wild mock orange, syringa)
Physocarpus capitatus (western ninebark)
Physocarpus malvaceus (mallow ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Purshia tridentata (antelope brush)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus trilobata (squawbush, basketbush, skunkbush)
Ribes aureum (golden currant)
Ribes cereum (wax currant, western red currant, squaw currant)
Rosa nutkana (nootka rose)
Rosa woodsii (western wild rose, woods rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus parviflorus (western thimbleberry)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix scouleriana (western pussy willow, Scouler's willow)
Sambucus cerulea (blue elderberry)
Sambucus racemosa var. melanocarpa (black elderberry)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood)
Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry)
Sorbus scopulina (western mountain ash)
Spiraea douglasii (western spiraea, hardhack spiraea)
Spiraea splendens var. splendens (subalpine spiraea)
Symphoricarpos oreophilus (mountain snowberry)
Viburnum edule (moosewood viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Artemisia nova (black sagebrush)
Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush, Great Basin sagebrush)
Ceanothus velutinus (mountain balm, buckbush)
Cercocarpus ledifolius (curl-leaf mountain mahogany)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia microphylla (swamp laurel, bog laurel)
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape)
Mahonia nervosa var. nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
Paxistima myrsinites (Oregon box, myrtle boxwood, mountain lover)
Phyllodoce empetriformis (pink mountain heather)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer glabrum (Rocky Mountain maple)
Acer grandidentatum (bigtooth maple)
Acer negundo (box elder)
Alnus rhombifolia (white alder)
Betula occidentalis (mountain birch, water birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (netleaf hackberry)
Larix occidentalis (western larch, western tamarack)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies grandis (grand fir, giant fir)
Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir)
Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper)
Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper)
Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce)
Picea pungens (blue spruce, Colorado spruce)
Pinus contorta var. murrayana (lodgepole pine)
Pinus flexilis (limber pine)
Pinus monticola (western white pine)
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
Taxus brevifolia (western yew, Pacific yew)
Thuja plicata (western red cedar)
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)
Tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Clematis columbiana (purple virgin's bower)
Clematis ligusticifolia (clematis)
Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Idaho Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standard of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
Plant Industries
120 Klotz, Box 790
Boise, ID 83702

Robert H. Callihan
Plant/Soil Science Dept.
University of Idaho
Moscow, ID 83843
(208) 885-6617

Idaho Resource

Idaho Conservation Data Center
Department of Fish & Game
600 South Walnut Street, Box 25
Boise, ID 83707
(208) 334-3402

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
PO Box 165
Sun Valley, ID 83353
(208) 726-3007

Idaho Native Plant Society
PO Box 9451
Boise, ID 83707

Idaho Botanical Garden
2355 N. Penitentiary Road
Boise, ID 83712

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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