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State Plant Listings

Massachusetts

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

95 Appalachian Oak Forest (Quercus)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
99 Northern Hardwoods-Spruce Forests (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Picea-Tsuga)
100 Northeastern Oak-Pine Forest (Quercus-Pinus)

Botanical Experts

Robert Wernerehl
State Botanist
Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program
Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife
1 Rabbit Hill Road
Westborough, MA 01581
Robert.Wernerehl@state.ma.us
(508) 389-7818

David Paulson, M.S.
Endangered Species Review Biologist
Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program
Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife
1 Rabbit Hill Road
Westborough, MA 01581
www.mass.gov/nhesp
David.Paulson@state.ma.us
(508) 389-6366
(508) 389-7890 (fax)

Recommended Flora

Gray, A. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 8th Edition (M.L. Fernald, Editor). Van Nostrand, New York, 1632 pgs. + Illus.

Gleason, H.A.; A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd Edition. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Holmgren, N. H. (Ed.) 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason & Cronquist Manual. N.Y. Bot. Garden, Bronx, NY 937 pp.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Massachusetts

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris intermedia
Dryopteris marginalia (marginal wood fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalia (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Thelypteris palustris (Massachusetts fern)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)
Woodwardia virginica (Virginia chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias amplexicaulis (milkweed)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Baptisia tinctoria (wild indigo)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica (goldthread)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Euthamia tenuifolia
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana clausa (bottle gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geum rivale (purple avens, water avens)
Helianthus divaricatus (woodland sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Osmorhiza longistylis (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium atlanticum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola cucullata (blue marsh violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola lanceolata
Viola primulifolia (primrose-leaved violet)
Viola sagittata
Viola sororia (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Bromus pubescens (woodland or Canada brome)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex crinita (awned sedge)
Carex echinata
Carex intumescens (bladder sedge)
Carex lurida (sallow sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex scoparia
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimble Will)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Clethra alnifolia (summer sweet)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron canadense (rhodora)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaultheria hispidula (creeping snowberry)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel, lambkill kalmia)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Amelanchier canadensis (shadblow serviceberry, Juneberry)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus nigra (Canada plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (white cedar)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)

Vines (deciduous)

Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis (purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper, woodbine)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Northeastern (Barbed bristle) bulrush (Scirpus ancistrochaetus)
Sandplain gerardia (Agalinis acuta)
Small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides)

Massachusetts Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed Law only)

Department of Agriculture
Pest Control Bureau
100 Cambridge Street
Boston, MA 02202

Prasanta Bhowmik
University of MA
Plant & Soil Sciences
Stockbridge Hall
Amherst, MA 01003
(413)545-5223

Massachusetts Resources

Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program
Route 135
Westboro, MA 01581
(617) 727-9141

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
79 Milk Street, Ste. 300
Boston, MA 02109
(617) 423-2545

New England Wildflower Society Garden in the Woods
180 Hemenway Road
Framingham, MA 01701
(508) 877-7630

The Conway School of Landscape Design
46 Delabarre Avenue
Conway, MA 01341-01701

Arnold Arboretum
125 Arborway
Jamaica Plain, MA 02130

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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