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State Plant Listings

Maine

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

87 Northeastern Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
95 Appalachian Oak Forest (Quercus)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
99 Northern Hardwoods-Spruce Forests (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Picea-Tsuga)

Botanical Experts

Donald Cameron, Botanist
Maine Natural Areas Program
Department of Conservation
State House Station #93
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 287-8041
(207) 287-8040 (fax)
internet: don.s.cameron@maine.gov

Recommended Flora

Haines, A. and T F. Vining. 1998. Flora of Maine. V.F. Thomas Co., Bar Harbor, ME. 837 pp. ISBN 0966487400.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Maine

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Dryopteris marginalia (marginal wood fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalia (royal fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Thelypteris simulata (Massachusetts fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Actaea rubra (red baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum Back-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica (goldthread)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana clausa (bottle gentian)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geum rivale (purple avens, water avens)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon hirsutus (hairy beardtongue)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola sororia (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Bromus kalmii (prairie brome, wild chess)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex lucorum (woodland sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus effusus sp. (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Leymus mollis (American dune grass, beach wild rye)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Spartina patens (marsh hay cordgrass, salt meadow cordgrass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Empetrum nigrum (crowberry)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron canadense (rhodora)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rubus idaeus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Vaccinium corymbosom (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Andromeda polifolia var. glaucophylla (bog rosemary)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaultheria hispidula (creeping snowberry)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Ilex glabra (inkberry, bitter gallberry)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper, creeping savin)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel, lambkill kalmia)
Kalmia polifolia (swamp laurel, bog laurel)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (mountain cranberry, lingonberry, cowberry)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pennsylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Amelanchier canadensis (shadblow serviceberry, Juneberry)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus nigra (Canada plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Picea mariana (black spruce)
Picea rubens (red spruce)
Pinus resinosa (red pine, Norway pine)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae, northern white cedar)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)
Furbish lousewort (Pedicularis furbishiae)
Small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides)

Maine Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Seed Only)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
18 State House Station
Augusta, ME 04333

Maxwell McCormack
University of Maine
DFRU, PO Box 34
Orono, ME 04473
(207) 581-2903

Maine Resources

Maine Natural Areas Program
Department of Conservation
State House Station #93
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 287-8044

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
14 Maine Street, Ste. 401
Brunswick, ME 04011
(207) 729-5181

Josselyn Botanical Society
Deering Hall
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469

Wild Gardens of Acadia
Sieur de Monts Spring
Bar Harbor, ME 04609

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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