Environmental Review Toolkit
Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

        Next >

State Plant Listings

Minnesota

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

66 Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum)
72 Oak Savanna (Quercus-Andropogon)
84 Great Lakes Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
85 Conifer Bog (Picea-Larix-Thuja)
86 Great Lakes Pine Forest (Pinus)
89 Northern Floodplain Forest (Populus-Salix Ulmus)
90 Maple-Basswood Forest (Acer-Tilia)

Botanical Experts

Welby Smith, Botanist
Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program
Division of Fish and Wildlife
500 Lafayette Road Box 7
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 297-3733
(612) 297-4961 (fax)
internet: welby.smith@dnr.state.mn.us

Recommended Flora

Ownbey, G.B. and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular Plants of Minnesota: A Checklist and Atlas. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, MN. 307 pgs. maps. ISBN 0816619158.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Minnesota

Cactus

Opuntia macrorhiza (common prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Euphorbia marginata (snow-on-the-mountain)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Helianthus petiolaris (plains sunflower)
Linum rigidum (yellow flax)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera rhombipetala (diamond-petal primrose, four-point evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium stellatum (wild pink onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone multifida (early thimbleweed, cut-leaf anemone, Pacific anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Aster sericeus (silky aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia alba var. macrophylla (cream false indigo, plains wild indigo)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Castilleja sessiliflora (downy painted cup)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica (goldthread)
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Dalea candida (white prairie clover)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved purple coneflower)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana alba (cream gentian, yellow gentian)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geum rivale (purple avens, water avens)
Geum triflorum (prairie smoke, purple avens)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian sunflower)
Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera richardsonii (alum root)
Hieracium longipilum (hairy hawkweed)
Houstonia longifolia var. longifolia (long-leaved bluets, pale bluets)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypericum ascyron (great St. John's wort)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris cylindracea (dwarf blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris punctata (dotted blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nothocalais cuspidata (prairie dandelion)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Osmorhiza berteroi (mountain sweet cicely)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Penstemon albidus (white beardtongue)
Penstemon grandiflorus (large-flowered penstemon)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet William)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola missouriensis (Missouri violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (red three awn)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Bromus kalmii (prairie brome, wild chess)
Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Calamovilfa longifolia (sandreed grass, prairie sandreed)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa spartea (porcupine grass)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Amorpha nana (dwarf wild indigo)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Artemisia frigida (prairie sagewort, fringed sage)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Crataegus douglasii (black hawthorn)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Elaeagnus commutata (silverberry, wild olive, wolf willow)
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus pumila var. besseyi (sand cherry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus parviflorus (western thimbleberry)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Shepherdia argentea (silver buffaloberry)
Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Vaccinium uliginosum (alpine blueberry, bog blueberry)
Viburnum edule (Moosewood viburnum)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Andromeda polifolia var. glaucophylla (bog rosemary)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Gaultheria hispidula (creeping snowberry)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper, creeping savin)
Kalmia polifolia (swamp laurel, bog laurel)
Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea, muskeg tea)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (mountain cranberry, lingonberry, cowberry)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)
Malus ioensis var. ioensis (prairie crabapple)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus nigra (Canada plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Picea glauca (white spruce)
Pinus resinosa (red pine, Norway pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae, northern white cedar)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis (purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Leedy's roseroot (Sedum integrifolium ssp. Leedyi)
Minnesota trout lily (Erythronium propullans)
Prairie bush-clover (Lespedeza leptostachya)
Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara)

Minnesota Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Chuck Dale
Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Protection
90 West Plato Boulevard
St. Paul, MN 55107

Roger Becker
Agronomy & Plant Genetics
University of MN
411 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul, MN 55108
(651) 625-5753

Minnesota Resources

Minnesota Natural Heritage & Nongame Research
Department of Natural Resources
500 Lafayette Road, Box 7
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 296-3344
(612) 297-4961 (fax)

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
1313 Fifth Street S.E., Ste. 320
Minneapolis, MN 55414
(612) 331-0750

Minnesota Native Plant Society
220 Biological Science Center
1446 Gortner Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55108

Prairie Wetlands Learning Center
PO Box 23
Fergus Falls, MN 56538

        Next >

Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

spacer
HEP Home Planning Environment Real Estate

Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000