Environmental Review Toolkit
Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

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State Plant Listings

North Carolina

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

65 Northern Cordgrass Prairie (Distichlis-Spartina)
81 Live Oak-Sea Oats (Quercus-Uniola)
88 Southeastern Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
95 Appalachian Oak Forest (Quercus)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pines)
102 Southern Mixed Forest (Fagus-Liquidambar-Magnolia-Pines-Quercus)
103 Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus-Nyssa-Taxodium)
104 Pocosin (Pines-Ilex)

Botanical Experts

Dr. John Kartesz
University of North Carolina
CD 3280, Coker Hall
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280
(919) 962-0578
internet: jkartesz@bio.unc.edu

Recommended Flora

Radford, A.E.; H.E. Ahles; C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pgs.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in North Carolina

Cactus

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum capillus-veneris (southern maidenhair fern)
Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)
Woodwardia virginica (Virginia chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket, firewheel)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Glandularia canadensis (rose vervain, sweet William)
Ipomopsis rubra (standing cypress)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Amsonia ciliata (blue funnel lily, blue star)
Amsonia tabernaemontana (blue star)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum Back-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias amplexicaulis (milkweed)
Asclepias humistrata (milkweed)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias variegata (milkweed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Astilbe biternata (false goatsbeard)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia australis (blue wild indigo)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone lyonii (turtlehead)
Chrysogonum virginianum (green-and-gold)
Chrysopsis mariana (Maryland golden aster)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane, black cohosh)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Collinsonia canadensis (stoneroot, citronella horsebalm)
Coreopsis auriculata (early coreopsis)
Coreopsis grandiflora (coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis pubescens (coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Coreopsis verticillata (whorled coreopsis)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dicentra eximia (wild bleeding heart)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Filipendula rubra (queen-of-the-prairie)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana alba (cream gentian, yellow gentian)
Gentiana clausa (bottle gentian)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Hedyotis nigricans (bluets)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus angustifolius (sunflower)
Helianthus debilis (sunflower)
Helianthus microcephalus (sunflower)
Helianthus simulans (narrow-leaved sunflower, swamp sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heuchera americana var. hirsuticaulis (alumroot)
Hibiscus laevis (halberd-leaved marsh mallow)
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow, marshmallow hibiscus)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Houstonia longifolia var. longifolia (long-leaved bluets, pale bluets)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hymenocallis caroliniana (spider lily, rain lily)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Iris prismatica (slender blue flag, coastal iris)
Iris verna (dwarf flag iris)
Iris virginica (southern blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Kosteletzkya virginica (seashore mallow)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Lilium catesbaei (pine lily)
Lilium michauxii (Carolina lily)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linum virginianum (woodland flax)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Manfreda virginica (rattlesnake master, false aloe)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda didyma (beebalm, oswego tea)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Monarda punctata (beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Orontium aquaticum (golden club)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Pachysandra procumbens (Alleghany spurge)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon australis (beardtongue)
Penstemon smallii (small's beardtongue)
Phlox carolina (Carolina phlox)
Phlox divaricata (blue woodland phlox, sweet william)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet william)
Phlox paniculata (summer phlox, perennial phlox)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Phlox stolonifera (creeping phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Rhexia nashii (meadow beauty)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia fulgida (black-eyed Susan, orange coneflower)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Sedum ternatum (wild stonecrop)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silene virginica (fire pink)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Silphium terebinthinaceum (prairie dock)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium mucronatum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Stokesia laevis (stokes' aster)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Thermopsis villosa (bush pea)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Tradescantia hirsuticaulis (hairy spiderwort)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Tradescantia virginiana (Virginia spiderwort, spider lily)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola affinis (Florida violet)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish dagger)
Zephyranthes atamasca (atamasco lily, Easter lily)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon ternarius (splitbeard bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Chasmanthium latifolium (inland sea oats, wild oats, river oats, broad-leaf uniola)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Elymus villosus (wild rye)
Elymus virginicus (wild rye)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Muhlenbergia capillaris (gulf muhly, hair grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Saccharum giganteum (sugarcane plume grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina patens (marsh hay cordgrass, salt meadow cordgrass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Aesculus sylvatica (buckeye)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Baccharis halimifolia (sea myrtle, groundsel bush)
Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, French mulberry)
Calycanthus floridus (Carolina allspice, sweet shrub)
Castanea pumila (chinquapin)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Clethra alnifolia (summer sweet)
Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Diervilla sessilifolia (southern bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Erythrina herbacea (coral bean)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Fothergilla major (witch alder)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina buckthorn)
Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Itea virginica (Virginia willow, sweetspire, tassel-white)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron arborescens (smooth azalea)
Rhododendron atlanticum (dwarf, or coastal azalea)
Rhododendron calendulaceum (flame azalea)
Rhododendron canescens (wild, piedmont, or sweet azalea)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxterbloom azalea)
Rhododendron prinophyllum (roseshell azalea, early azalea)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa palustris (swamp rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Stewartia malacodendron (silky camellia)
Styrax americanus (American silverbells)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry, farkleberry)
Vaccinium corymbosom (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)
Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)
Viburnum rufidulum (southern or rusty black haw)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Gordonia lasianthus (loblolly bay, gordonia)
Ilex glabra (inkberry, bitter gallberry)
Ilex vomitoria (yaupon)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel, lambkill kalmia)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Leucothoe axillaris (coast leucothoe)
Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle, southern bayberry, candleberry)
Pieris floribunda (fetter-bush, mountain andromeda)
Rhododendron carolinianum (Carolina rhododendron)
Rhododendron catawbiense (purple rhododendron, red laurel)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay, great laurel)
Sabal minor (dwarf palmetto)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer barbatum (Florida maple, southern sugar maple)
Acer leucoderme (chalk maple)
Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Aesculus flava (sweet buckeye, yellow buckeye)
Aesculus pavia var. pavia (red buckeye)
Amelanchier canadensis (shadblow serviceberry, Juneberry)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree, old man's beard)
Cladrastis kentukea (yellowwood)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus marshallii (parsley hawthorn)
Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Cyrilla racemiflora (leatherwood, yiti)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (beech)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Halesia tetraptera (Carolina silverbell)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex decidua (possum-haw, deciduous holly)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree)
Magnolia tripetala (umbrella tree)
Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay, swampbay)
Malus angustifolia (southern crabapple, wild crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus laurifolia (laurel oak)
Quercus lyrata (overcup oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus prinus (rock chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus shumardii (shumard oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Chamaecyparis thyoides (white cedar)
Ilex opaca (American holly, Christmas holly)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia)
Persea borbonia (red bay)
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)
Prunus caroliniana (cherry laurel)
Quercus virginiana (live oak, coastal live oak, southern live oak)
Sabal palmetto (cabbage palm)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae, northern white cedar)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Tsuga caroliniana (Carolina hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Bignonia capreolata (cross vine)
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis crispa (leatherflower)
Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis (purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape)

Vine (evergreen)

Gelsemium sempervirens (yellow jessamine, Carolina jessamine)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

American chaffseed (Schwalbea americana)
Blue Ridge goldenrod (Solidago spithamaea)
Bunched arrowhead (Sagittaria fasciculata)
Canby's dropwort (Oxypolis canbyi)
Cooley's meadowrue (Thalictrum cooleyi)
Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora)
Green pitcher-plant (Sarracenia oreophila)
Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum (fluviatile))
Heller's blazingstar (Liatris helleri)
Michaux's sumac (Rhus michauxii)
Mountain golden heather (Hudsonia montana)
Mountain sweet pitcher-plant (Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii)
Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)
Roan Mountain bluet (Hedyotis purpurea var. montana)
Rock gnome lichen (Gymnoderma lineare)
Rough-leaved loosestrife (Lysimachia asperulaefolia)
Schweinitz's sunflower (Helianthus schweinitzii)
Seabeach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus)
Sensitive joint-vetch (Aeschynomene virginica)
Small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides)
Small-anthered bittercress (Cardamine micranthera)
Smooth coneflower (Echinacea laevigata)
Spreading avens (Geum radiatum)
Swamp pink (Helonias bullata)
Virginia spiraea (Spiraea virginiana)
White irisette (Sisyrinchium dichotomum)

North Carolina Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed Law)

Gene Cross
Department of Agriculture
Plant Industry Division
PO Box 27647
Raleigh, NC 27611

Stratford Kay
NC State University
]4401-B Williams Hall #7620
Raleigh, NC 27695
(919) 515-5654

North Carolina Resources

North Carolina Heritage Program
NC Department of Environment, Health & Natural Resources
Division of Parks & Rec.
PO Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611
(919) 733-7701

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
4011 University Drive, Ste. 201
Durham, NC 27707
(919) 403-8558

NC Wildflower Preservation Society
900 West Nash Street
Wilson, NC 27893

North Carolina Arboretum
Western Carolina University
Cullowhee, NC 28723

The Daniel Boone Native Gardens
Daniel Boone Park
Off Highway 421
Boone, NC

John Kartesz
Biota of North America Program
North Carolina Botanical Garden
CD3280, Coker Hall
Chapel Hill, NC 27599
(919) 962-0578

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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