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State Plant Listings

Nebraska

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

15 Eastern Ponderosa Forest (Pinus)
16 Black Hills Pine forest (Pinus)
57 Grama-Needlegrass-Wheatgrass (Bouteloua-Stipa-Agropyron)
58 Grama-Buffalo Grass (Bouteloua-Buchloe)
59 Wheatgrass-Needlegrass (Agropyron-Stipa)
60 Wheatgrass-Bluestem-Needlegrass (Agropyron-Andropogon-Stipa)
62 Bluestem-Grama Prairie (Andropogon-Bouteloua)
63 Sandsage-Bluestem Prairie (Artemisia-Andropogon)
66 Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum)
67 Sandhills Prairie (Andropogon-Calamovilfa)
89 Northern Floodplain Forest (Populus-Salix-Ulmus)
91 Oak-Hickory Forest (Quercus-Carya)

Botanical Expert

Gerry Steinauer, Botanist/Ecologist
Nebraska Natural Heritage Program
2200 North 33rd St.
Lincoln, NE 68503
(402) 471-5469
(402) 471-5528 (fax)
internet: Gerry.Steinauer@nebraska.gov

Recommended Flora

Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS 66045. Other authors: R.L. McGregor and T.M. Barkley. 1392 pgs. ISBN 0 7006 0295 X.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Nebraska

Cacti

Opuntia fragilis (little prickly pear)
Opuntia macrorhiza (common prickly pear)
Opuntia polyacantha (plains prickly pear)

Ferns

Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Cleome serrulata (Rocky Mountain beeplant)
Coreopsis tinctoria (tickseed, goldenwave, plains coreopsis, calliopsis)
Euphorbia marginata (snow-on-the-mountain)
Eustoma grandiflorum (prairie or catchfly gentian, Texas bluebell)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket, firewheel)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Helianthus petiolaris (plains sunflower)
Ipomopsis longiflora (white-flowered gilia)
Linum rigidum (yellow flax)
Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (tahoka daisy, tansy aster)
Oenothera albicaulis (pale evening primrose)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera rhombipetala (diamond-petal primrose, four-point evening primrose)
Pectis angustifolia (limoncillo, fetid marigold)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)
Thelesperma filifolium var. filifolium (thelesperma, greenthread)
Townsendia exscapa (Easter daisy)

Forbs (perennials)

Abronia fragrans (sweet sand verbena)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium textile (white wild onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone multifida (early thimbleweed, cut-leaf anemone, Pacific anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Aster sericeus (silky aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia lactea (white wild indigo)
Baptisia bracteata (plains wild indigo)
Callirhoe involucrata (purple poppy mallow, winecup)
Calochortus nuttallii (sego lily, mariposa lily)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Castilleja sessiliflora (downy painted cup)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Dalea candida (white prairie clover)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved purple coneflower)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galiurn triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gaura coccinea (scarlet gaura)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geranium viscossisimum (sticky wild geranium)
Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida (prairie verbena, Dakota vervain)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian sunflower)
Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Heuchera richardsonii (alum root)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Ipomoea leptophylla (bush morning glory)
Iris missouriensis (Rocky Mountain iris, western blue flag)
Iris virginica var. Shrevei (southern blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris punctata (dotted blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus argenteus (silvery lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera cespitosa (gumbo evening primrose, gumbo lily)
Oenothera macrocarpa (Missouri evening primrose)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Penstemon albidus (white beardtongue)
Penstemon angustifolius (whorled penstemon)
Penstemon cobaea (cobaea penstemon, wild foxglove)
Penstemon grandiflorus (large-flowered penstemon)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet William)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifida (pasque flower, wild crocus)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia azurea var. grandiflora (blue sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Tetraneuris acaulis var. acaulis (stemless goldflower, stemless rubber weed, butte marigold)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Vernonia baldwinii (ironweed, western ironweed)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola missouriensis (Missouri violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Yucca glauca (yucca, soapweed)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis exarata (spikebent, spike red top)
Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon hallii (sand bluestem)
Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (red three awn)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Calamovilfa longifolia (sandreed grass, prairie sandreed)
Carex filifolia
Carex heliophila
Carex nebrascensis (Nebraska sedge)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Elymus lanceolatus (thickspike wheatgrass)
Elymus villosus (wild rye)
Elymus virginicus (wild rye)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa spartea (porcupine grass)
Stipa viridula (green needle grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush, wingscale)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Chrysothamnus nauseosus (rabbit brush, chamisa)
Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus drummondii (rough-leaf dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Krascheninnikovia lanata (winterfat)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Prunus pumila var. besseyi (sand cherry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Ribes odoratum (buffalo currant, golden currant)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rosa woodsii (western wild rose, woods rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Salix interior (sand-bar willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood)
Shepherdia argentea (silver buffaloberry)
Symphoricarpos occidentalis (wolfberry)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush, Great Basin sagebrush)
Cercocarpus montanus (mountain mahogany, silverleaf mountain mahogany)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper, creeping savin)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer glabrum (Rocky Mountain maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Betula occidentalis (mountain birch, water birch)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Malus ioensis var. ioensis (prairie crabapple)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis ligusticifolia (clematis)
Clematis pitcheri (leather flower, purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii)
Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara)

Nebraska Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
PO Box 94756
Lincoln, NE 68509

Alexander R. Martin
Agronomy Department
362 Plant Science Building
Lincoln, NE 68583
(402) 472-1527

Nebraska Resources

Nebraska Natural Heritage Program
Game and Parks Commission
2200 North 33rd Street
Lincoln, NE 68503
(402) 471-5421

The Nature Conservancy, Field Office
1722 St. Mary's Avenue, Ste. 403
Omaha, NE 68102
(402) 342-0282

Wildflower Society of Nebraska
402 Ridgeway Drive
Norfolk, NE 68701

Prairie/Plains Resource Institute
1307 111th St.
Aurora, NE 68818
(402) 694-5535

Chet Ager Nature Center
Pioneers Park
Lincoln, NE 68502

Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
PO Box 830915
Lincoln, NE 68583

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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