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State Plant Listings

Oklahoma

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

21 Juniper-Pinyon Woodland (Juniperus-Pinus)
58 Grama-Buffalo Grass (Bouteloua-Buchloe)
62 Bluestem-Grama Prairie (Andropogon Bouteloua)
63 Sandsage-Bluestem Prairie (Artemisia-Andropogon)
64 Shinnery (Quercus-Andropogon)
66 Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum)
67 Sandhills Prairie (Andropogon-Calamovilfa)
73 Mosaic of 66 (Bluestem Prairie) and 91 (Oak-Hickory Forest)
75 Cross Timbers (Quercus-Andropogon)
91 Oak-Hickory Forest (Quercus-Carya)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pinus)
103 Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus Nyssa-Taxodium)

Botanical Experts

Connie Taylor, State Botanist
Department of Biology
Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Durant, OK 74701
(405) 924-5163

Ron Tryl, State Botanist
Department of Botany
Life Sciences East
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405) 744-9558

Recommended Flora

Taylor, R.).; C.E.S. Taylor. 1994. An Annotated List of Ferns, Fern Allies, Gymnosperms, and Flowering Plants of Oklahoma. 3rd Edition. Biology Dept. Herbarium, Southeastern Oklahoma State University. Durant, OK. 133 pgs. + illus.

Waterfall, U.T 1972. Keys to the Flora of Oklahoma, 5th Edition. Published by the author, for sale by the Student Union Bookstore, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Oklahoma

Cacti

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)
Opuntia imbricata (tree cholla, walkingstick cholla)
Opuntia macrorhiza (common prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum capillus-veneris (southern maidenhair fern)
Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Aphanostephus skirrhobasis (lazy daisy)
Castilleja indivisa (Indian paintbrush)
Centaurea americana (basket flower)
Cleome serrulata (Rocky Mountain beeplant)
Coreopsis tinctoria (tickseed, goldenwave, plains coreopsis, calliopsis)
Dracopsis amplexicaulis (clasping leaf coneflower)
Erigeron bellidiastrum (western fleabane)
Eryngium leavenworthii (Leavenworth eryngo)
Eschscholzia californica ssp. mexicana (Mexican gold poppy)
Euphorbia marginata (snow-on-the-mountain)
Eustoma russellianum (prairie or catchfly gentian, Texas bluebell)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket, firewheel)
Glandularia canadensis (rose vervain, sweet William)
Helianthus petiolaris (plains sunflower)
Ipomopsis longiflora (white-flowered gilia)
Ipomopsis rubra (standing cypress)
Lesquerella gordonii (Gordon's bladderpod)
Lesquerella gracilis (bladderpod)
Linum rigidum (yellow flax)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (tahoka daisy, tansy aster)
Marshallia caespitosa var. caespitosa (Barbara's buttons)
Monarda citriodora (horsemint, lemon beebalm, lemon mint)
Nemophila phacelioides (baby blue eyes)
Oenothera albicaulis (pale evening primrose)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera rhombipetala (diamond-petal primrose, four-point evening primrose)
Palafoxia callosa (small palafoxia)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Sabatia campestris (prairie rose gentian, prairie sabatia, meadow pink)
Sedum nuttallianum (yellow stonecrop)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)
Teucrium laciniatum (dwarf germander, cutleaf germander)
Thelesperma filifolium var. filifolium (thelesperma, greenthread)
Xanthisma texanum (sleepy daisy)

Forbs (perennials)

Abronia fragrans (sweet sand verbena)
Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium stellatum (wild pink onion)
Amsonia tabernaemontana (blue star)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Arnoglossum plantagineum
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asclepias asperula (antelope horns)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba var. macrophylla (cream false indigo, plains wild indigo)
Baptisia australis (blue wild indigo)
Callirhoe digitata (finger poppy mallow)
Callirhoe involucrata (purple poppy mallow, winecup)
Callirhoe papaver (poppy mallow)
Calylophus berlandieri (square-bud primrose, sundrops)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Castilleja sessiliflora (downy painted cup)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Cooperia drummondii (rain lily, prairie lily)
Coreopsis grandiflora (coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Delphinium carolinianum (blue larkspur)
Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (prairie larkspur)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Desmodium sessilifolium (tick-trefoil)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved purple coneflower, black Samson)
Echinacea pallida (pale purple coneflower)
Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)
Engelmannia pinnatifida (Engelmann daisy)
Erigeron modestus (prairie fleabane)
Erigeron philadelphicus (Philadelphia fleabane)
Erigeron strigosus (white-top fleabane)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Gaillardia pinnatifida (yellow gaillardia, blanket flower)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gaura coccinea (scarlet gaura)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida (prairie verbena, Dakota vervain)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Hedyotis nigricans (bluets)
Hedysarum boreale (sweet vetch, sweet broom)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian sunflower)
Helianthus simulans (narrow-leaved sunflower, swamp sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera americana var. hirsuticaulis (alumroot)
Hieracium longipilum (hairy hawkweed)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Ipomoea leptophylla (bush morning glory)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Iris virginica (southern blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris elegans (gayfeather)
Liatris mucronata (narrow-leaf gayfeather)
Liatris punctata (dotted blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Linum lewisii (wild blue flax)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose, verdolaga de agua)
Lycopus americanus (bugle-weed, water-horehound)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Manfreda virginica (rattlesnake master, false aloe)
Melampodium leucanthum (Blackfoot daisy, rock daisy)
Mimosa quadrivalvis var. angustata (catclaw sensitive briar)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nolina texana (sacahuista, basket grass, Texas beargrass)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Oenothera macrocarpa (Missouri evening primrose)
Oenothera speciosa (showy white evening primrose)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon albidus (white beardtongue)
Penstemon ambiguus (sand penstemon)
Penstemon angustifolius (whorled penstemon)
Penstemon cobaea (cobaea penstemon, wild foxglove)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon fendleri (fendler penstemon, purple foxglove)
Penstemon grandiflorus (large-flowered penstemon)
Penstemon murrayanus (red penstemon, cupleaf beardtongue)
Phlox carolina (Carolina phlox)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet William)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia intermedia (obedient plant)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Polytaenia nuttallii (prairie parsley)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia fulgida (black-eyed Susan, orange coneflower)
Rudbeckia grandiflora (large coneflower)
Rudbeckia subtomentosa (sweet black-eyed Susan)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Sphaeralcea coccinea (scarlet globe mallow)
Spigelia marilandica (Indian pink)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Tetraneuris acaulis var. acaulis (stemless goldflower, stemless rubber weed, butte marigold)
Tetraneuris scaposa var. scaposa (four-nerve daisy, yellow daisy, bitterweed)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Tradescantia hirsuticaulis (hairy spiderwort)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Vernonia baldwinii (ironweed, western ironweed)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola missouriensis (Missouri violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Yucca arkansana (Arkansas yucca, softleaf yucca)
Yucca glauca (yucca, soapweed)
Zinnia grandiflora (Rocky Mountain zinnia, yellow zinnia, plains zinnia)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon hallii (sand bluestem)
Andropogon ternarius (splitbeard bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Aristida purpurea (purple three awn)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua eriopoda (black grama)
Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Chasmanthium latifolium (inland sea oats, wild oats, river oats, broad-leaf uniola)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Digitaria californica (cottontop)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Eragrostis intermedia (plains lovegrass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Hilaria mutica (tobosa grass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Leptochloa dubia (green sprangletop)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Muhlenbergia capillaris (gulf muhly, hair grass)
Muhlenbergia ported (bush muhly)
Muhlenbergia reverchonii (seep muhly)
Panicum obtusum (vine mesquite)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Poa arachnifera (Texas bluegrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa spartea (porcupine grass)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Acacia angustissima (fern acacia, whiteball acacia)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Artemisia frigida (prairie sagewort, fringed sage)
Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush, wingscale)
Baccharis halimifolia (sea myrtle, groundsel bush)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cornus drummondii (rough-leaf dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Dalea formosa (feather plume, feather dalea)
Dalea frutescens (black dalea)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina buckthorn)
Hamamelis vernalis (vernal witch hazel)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Itea virginica (Virginia willow, sweetspire, tassel-white)
Lonicera albiflora (white honeysuckle)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Mimosa borealis (pink mimosa, fragrant mimosa)
Prunus gracilis (Oklahoma plum)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron canescens (wild, piedmont, or sweet azalea)
Rhododendron oblongifolium (Texas azalea)
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Ribes odoratum (buffalo currant, golden currant)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rosa woodsii (western wild rose, woods rose)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sideroxylon lanuginosum ssp. lanuginosum (chittamwood, gum elastic tree)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry, farkleberry)
Vaccinium corymbosom (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)
Viburnum rufidulum (southern or rusty black haw)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Ilex decidua (possumhaw, deciduous holly)
Ilex vomitoria (yaupon)
Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle, southern bayberry, candleberry)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Aesculus pavia var. pavia (red buckeye)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Ca rya texana (black hickory)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (netleaf hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Cotinus obovatus (smoke tree)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus marshallii (parsley hawthorn)
Crataegus mol l is (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus viridis (green hawthorn)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Halesia tetraptera (Carolina silverbell)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Malus ioensis var. ioensis (prairie crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus nigra (water oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus shumardii (shumard oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sapindus saponaria var. drummondii (soapberry)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus alata (winged or cork elm, wahoo)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus edulis (pinyon pine, Colorado pinyon)

Vines (deciduous)

Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis crispa (leatherflower)
Clematis pitcheri (leather flower, purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara)

Oklahoma Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
2800 N. Lincoln Boulevard
Oklahoma City, OK 73105

Thomas F. Peeper
Agronomy Dept.
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405) 744-6417

Oklahoma Resources

Natural Heritage Inventory
Oklahoma Biological Survey
111 East Chesapeake Street
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019
(405) 325-1985

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
23 West Fourth, Ste. 200
Tulsa, OK 74103
(918) 585-1117

Oklahoma Native Plant Society
2435 S. Peoria Avenue
Tulsa, OK 74114

Redbud Valley Nature Preserve
161 East Avenue
Tulsa, OK 74115

Oxley Nature Center
6700 E. Mohawk Boulevard
Tulsa, OK 74115

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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