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State Plant Listings

Oregon

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

1 Spruce-Cedar-Hemlock Forest (Picea-Thuja-Tsuga)
2 Cedar-Hemlock-Douglas Fir Forest (Thuja-Tsuga-Pseudotsuga)
3 Silver Fir-Douglas Fir Forest (Abies-Pseudotsuga)
4 Fir-Hemlock Forest (Abies-Tsuga)
5 Mixed Conifer Forest (Abies-Pines-Pseudotsuga)
10 Western Ponderosa Forest (Pines)
11 Douglas Fir Forest (Pseudotsuga)
13 Grand Fir-Douglas Fir Forest (Abies-Pseudotsuga)
14 Western Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
22 Oregon Oakwoods (Quercus)
24 Mosaic of 2 (Cedar-hemlock-Douglas fir forest) and 22 Oregon oakwoods)
34 Saltbrush-Geasewood (Artiplex-Sarcobatus)
43 Fescue-Wheatgrass (Festuca Agropyron)
44 Wheatgrass-Bluegrass (Agropyron-Poa)
45 Alpine Meadows and Barren (Agrostis, Carex, Festuca, Poa)
49 Sagebrush Steppe (Artemisia-Agropyron)

Botanical Expert

Sue Vrilakas, Botanist/Data Manager
Oregon Natural Heritage Program
Oregon Field Office
821 SE 14th Avenue
Portland, OR 97214
(503) 731-3070
(503) 230-9639 (fax)
internet: svrilakas@tnc.org

Recommended Flora

Cronquist, A. et al., 1997. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.: Vol. 3A: Rosidae (except for Fabales). New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Cronquist, A. et al., 1994. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.: Vol. 5: Asterales. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 496 pgs. + illus. maps. ISBN 0893273759.

Cronquist, A. et al., 1984. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.: Vol. 4: Asteridae (except for Asteraceae). New York Botanical Garden, New York. 573 pgs.

Cronquist, A. et al., 1989. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 279 pgs. + illus. maps. ISBN 0893273473.

Cronquist, A. et al., 1977. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.: Vol. 6: The Monocotyledons. Columbia University Press, New York. 584 pgs. + illus. maps. ISBN 0231041209.

Cronquist, A. et al., 1972. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A.: Vol. 1: Rosidae (except for Fabales). New York Botanical Garden, New York. 270 pgs.

Hitchcock, C.L. and A. Cronquist. 1974. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 730 pgs. + illus.

Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Manual of Higher Plants of California, Revision and Update of 1925 Original Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA. 1400 DRS. ISBN: 0520082559.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Oregon

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Aspidotis densa (rock brake, cliff brake, Indian's dream)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Blechnum spicant (deer fern)
Cheilanthes gracillima (lace fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris arguta (coast wood fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Polypodium glycyrrhiza (licorice fern)
Polypodium scouleri (rock polypody)
Polystichum imbricans (dwarf western sword fern)
Polystichum munitum (western sword fern)
Woodwardia fimbriata (chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Clarkia amoena (farewell-to-spring, herald-of-summer)
Cleome serrulata (Rocky Mountain beeplant)
Collinsia parviflora var. grandiflora (blue lips)
Collomia grandiflora (collomia)
Erysimum capitatum (western wallflower, prairie rocket)
Gilia capitata (globe gilia, blue gilia)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Ipomopsis aggregata (sky rocket, scarlet gilia)
Lasthenia californica (goldfields)
Layia glandulosa (tidy tips)
Lupinus bicolor (pigmy-leaved lupine, miniature lupine)
Mentzelia laevicaulis (blazing star, evening star, stick leaf)
Mimulus guttatus (monkey flower)
Nemophila breviflora (Great Basin nemophila)
Nemophila menziesii (baby blue eyes)

Forbs (perennials)

Achlys triphylla (vanilla leaf)
Aconitum columbianum (western monkshood)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium validum (swamp onion)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone multifida (early thimbleweed, cut-leaf anemone, Pacific anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia flavescens (yellow columbine)
Aquilegia formosa (scarlet columbine)
Armeria maritima (sea pink, thrift)
Arnica cordifolia (heartleaf arnica)
Artemisia douglasiana (Douglas mugwort)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (sylvan goat's beard)
Asarum caudatum (wild ginger)
Aster ascendens (purple aster, Pacific aster)
Aster foliaceus (leafy aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster sibiricus (Sibirian or arctic aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Balsamorrhiza sagittata (balsamroot)
Calochortus macrocarpus (bigpod mariposa)
Caltha leptosepala (white marsh marigold, elkslip)
Caltha palustris ssp. palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Castilleja angustifolia var. dubia (desert paintbrush)
Castilleja linariifolia (Indian paintbrush)
Castilleja sulphurea (splitleaf Indian paintbrush)
Claytonia lanceolata (spring beauty)
Clematis hirsutissima (clematis, vase flower, leather flower, lion's beard)
Clintonia uniflora (bride's bonnet, queen cup, bead lily)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Delphinium glareosum (delphinium)
Delphinium glaucum (tower larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Dichelostemma congestum (wild hyacinth)
Disporum smithii (fairy bells)
Dodecatheon hendersonii (Henderson's shooting stars)
Dodecatheon jeffreyi Jeffrey's shooting stars)
Dryas octopetala (mountain dryas, White mountain avens)
Dugaldia hoopesii (orange sneezeweed, owls' claws)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Epilobium canum (California fuschia)
Epilobium obcordatum (rock fringe)
Erigeron compositus (alpine daisy)
Erigeron glaucus (seaside daisy)
Erigeron speciosus (showy fleabane)
Eriogonum umbellatum (sulfur buckwheat)
Eriophyllum lanatum (woolly sunflower, Oregon sunshine)
Erythronium grandiflorum (glacier lily, yellow fawn lily, dogtooth violet)
Erythronium oregonum (Oregon fawn lily)
Erythronium revolutum (bog fawn lily)
Eschscholzia californica (California poppy)
Fragaria chiloensis (coast strawberry)
Fritillaria lanceolata (checker lily, mission bells, chocolate lily)
Gaillardia aristata (blanket flower, gaillardia, brown-eyed Susan)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Geranium viscossisimum (sticky wild geranium)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Hedysarum boreale (sweet vetch, sweet broom)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera micrantha (common alumroot)
Iris douglasiana (Douglas iris, western iris)
Iris missouriensis (Rocky Mountain iris; western blue flag)
Iris tenax (Oregon iris)
Lewisia rediviva (bitter root)
Lilium columbianum (Columbia lily, Oregon lily, wild tiger lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Linum lewisii (wild blue flax)
Luetkea pectinata (Alaska spiraea, partridge foot)
Lupinus argenteus (silvery lupine)
Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine)
Lupinus polyphyllus (meadow lupine, bog lupine)
Lysichiton americanus (skunk cabbage)
Maianthemum dilatatum (false lily-of-the-valley)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mertensia ciliata (mountain bluebells)
Mimulus cardinalis (crimson monkey flower)
Mimulus lewisii (Lewis monkey flower, great purple monkey flower)
Mimulus primuloides (primrose monkey flower)
Minuartia obtusiloba (cushion sandwort)
Monardella odoratissima (coyote mint, mountain pennyroyal)
Myosotis asiatica (forget-me-not)
Nothochelone nemorosa (woodland penstemon)
Oenothera cespitosa (gumbo evening primrose, gumbo lily)
Oenothera flava (shortfin evening primrose)
Osmorhiza berteroi (mountain sweet cicely)
Oxalis oregana (redwood sorrel)
Pedicularis groenlandica (elephant heads)
Penstemon azureus (azure penstemon)
Penstemon fruticosus (shrubby penstemon)
Penstemon rupicola (penstemon)
Penstemon serrulatus (Cascade penstemon, coast penstemon)
Penstemon speciosus (sagebrush penstemon)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Petrophyton caespitosum (dwarf spiraea, petrophytum, tufted rockmat)
Phacelia bolanderi (flowered grape leaf)
Phacelia sericea (silky phacelia)
Phlox diffusa (mat phlox)
Phlox speciosa (showy phlox)
Polemonium occidentale (Jacob's ladder)
Polemonium pulcherrimum (alpine Jacob's ladder, skunk leaf)
Polemonium viscosum (sky pilot)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Ranunculus alismaefolius (meadow buttercup)
Satureja douglasii (yerba buena)
Saxifraga bronchialis (spotted saxifrage, matted saxifrage)
Saxifraga cespitosa (tufted saxifrage)
Saxifraga oppositifolia (purple saxifrage)
Sedum spathulifolium (common stonecrop, broad-leaved sedum)
Sidalcea neomexicana (checker mallow, prairie mallow)
Silene acaulis (moss campion)
Silene californica (California Indian pink)
Silene hookeri (Hooker's pink, ground pink)
Sisyrinchium bellum (blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium californicum (golden-eyed grass)
Solidago californica (California goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago multiradiata (northern goldenrod, mountain goldenrod)
Sphaeralcea grossularifolia (gooseberry leaf globemallow)
Sphaeralcea munroana (Munro's globe mallow, white-leaved globe mallow)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Tellima grandiflora (fringe cup)
Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum (meadow rue)
Thermopsis macrophylla (false lupine)
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. montana (golden pea, buckbean)
Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (sugar scoop, western foam flower)
Tolmiea menziesii (piggyback plant, youth-on-age, thousand mothers)
Trientalis borealis ssp. latifolia (western starflower)
Trillium ovatum (coast trillium, western wakerobin)
Vancouveria hexandra (inside-out flower)
Viola glabella (smooth yellow or stream violet)
Viola macloskeyi (white mountain violet)
Viola nuttallii (yellow violet)
Viola vallicola (yellow violet)
Whipplea modesta (whipplevine, modesty, yerba de selva)
Wyethia angustifolia (narrowleaf mule ears)
Xerophyllum tenax (beargrass)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis exarata (spikebent, spike red top)
Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (red three awn)
Bromus carinatus (California brome)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex macrocephala (bighead sedge)
Carex nebrascensis (Nebraska sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Carex vernacula (sedge)
Danthonia californica (California oatgrass)
Danthonia intermedia (timber oatgrass)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Dichanthelium acuminatum var. acuminatum (panic grass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye)
Elymus lanceolatus (thickspike wheatgrass)
Festuca californica (California fescue)
Festuca idahoensis (Idaho fescue, blue bunchgrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe occidentalis (vanilla grass, California sweet grass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus dubius (little bamboo)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Leymus cinereus (Great Basin wild rye)
Leymus mollis (American dune grass, beach wild rye)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Phleum alpinum (alpine timothy)
Poa alpina (alpine bluegrass)
Poa secunda (pine bluegrass)
Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass)
Rhynchospora colorata (star-rush whitetop)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa nelsonii (Columbia needlegrass)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Amelanchier utahensis (Utah serviceberry)
Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush, wingscale)
Atriplex confertifolia (spiny saltbush, shadscale saltbush, hop sage)
Baccharis pilularis (chaparral broom)
Betula nana (bog birch, dwarf birch)
Ceanothus integerrimus (deer brush)
Ceanothus sanguineus (redstem ceanothus, wild lilac)
Chamaebatiaria millefolium (fernbush, desert sweet, tansy bush)
Chrysothamnus nauseosus (rabbit brush, chamisa)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Crataegus douglasii (black hawthorn)
Empetrum nigrum (crowberry)
Ephedra viridis (Mormon tea)
Holodiscus discolor (cream bush, ocean spray, mountain spray)
Holodiscus dumosus (bush rock-spires, cream bush, ocean spray)
Krascheninnikovia lanata (winterfat)
Lonicera involucrata (black twinberry, bear berry honeysuckle)
Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum, oso berry)
Philadelphus lewisii (wild mock orange, syringa)
Physocarpus capitatus (western ninebark)
Physocarpus malvaceus (mallow ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Purshia tridentata (antelope brush)
Rhododendron occidentale (western azalea)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus trilobata (squawbush, basketbush, skunkbush)
Ribes aureum (golden currant)
Ribes cereum (wax currant, western red currant, squaw currant)
Ribes laxiflorum (trailing black currant)
Ribes menziesii (chaparral currant)
Ribes sanguineum (pink-flowered currant, red flowering currant)
Rosa californica (California rose)
Rosa nutkana (nootka rose)
Rosa woodsii (western wild rose, woods rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus parviflorus (western thimbleberry)
Rubus spectabilis (salmon berry)
Rubus ursinus (western blackberry)
Salix arctica (arctic willow)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix scouleriana (western pussy willow, Scouler's willow)
Salvia dorrii (grayball sage)
Sambucus cerulea (blue elderberry)
Sambucus racemosa var. melanocarpa (black elderberry)
Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood)
Shepherdia argentea (silver buffaloberry)
Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry)
Sorbus scopulina (western mountain ash)
Spiraea douglasii (western spiraea, hardhack spiraea)
Spiraea splendens var. splendens (subalpine spiraea)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Vaccinium parvifolium (red huckleberry)
Vaccinium uliginosum (alpine blueberry, bog blueberry)
Viburnum edule (moosewood viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Arctostaphylos columbiana (hairy manzanita)
Arctostaphylos nevadensis (pinemat manzanita)
Arctostaphylos patula (greenleaf manzanita)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush, Great Basin sagebrush)
Castanopsis sempervirens (Sierra chinquapin, bush chinquapin)
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (blue blossom)
Ceanothus velutinus (mountain balm, buckbush)
Cercocarpus ledifolius (curl-leaf mountain mahogany)
Cercocarpus montanus (mountain mahogany, silverleaf mountain mahogany)
Frangula californica ssp. californica (coffeeberry)
Garrya elliptica (silk-tassel bush)
Gaultheria shallon (salal)
Grayia spinosa (spiny hopsage)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia polifolia (swamp laurel, bog laurel)
Ledum glandulosum (Labrador tea, muskeg tea)
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape)
Mahonia nervosa var. nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
Myrica californica (California wax myrtle)
Pachystima myrsinites (Oregon box, myrtle boxwood, mountain lover)
Phyllodoce empetriformis (pink mountain heather)
Rhododendron macrophyllum (Pacific rhododendron, California rose-bay)
Vaccinium ovatum (evergreen huckleberry)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer circinatum (Oregon vine maple)
Acer glabrum (Rocky Mountain maple)
Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple, canyon maple)
Alnus rhombifolia (white alder)
Betula occidentalis (mountain birch, water birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (netleaf hackberry)
Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood, mountain dogwood)
Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
Larix occidentalis (western larch, western tamarack)
Populus balsamifera (black cottonwood)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Quercus garryana (Oregon post oak)
Quercus kelloggii (California black oak)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies concolor (western white fir)
Abies grandis (grand fir, giant fir)
Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir)
Abies procera (noble fir)
Arbutus menziesii (Pacific madrone, Oregon laurel, Laurelwood)
Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Lawson falsecypress, Port Orford cedar)
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Alaska cedar, yellow cedar, nootka cedar)
Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper)
Lithocarpus densiflorus (tanbark oak)
Picea breweriana (Brewer's spruce, weeping spruce)
Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce)
Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
Pinus attenuata (knobcone pine)
Pinus contorta var. contorta (beach pine)
Pinus contorta var. murrayana (lodgepole pine)
Pinus flexilis (limber pine)
Pinus lambertiana (sugar pine)
Pinus monticola (western white pine)
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak)
Sequoia sempervirens (redwood)
Taxus brevifolia (western yew, Pacific yew)
Thuja plicata (western red cedar)
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)
Tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock)
Umbellularia californica (California bay laurel, myrtle)

Vines (deciduous)

Clematis ligusticifolia (clematis)
Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle)
Vitis californica (California wild grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Applegate's milk-vetch (Astragalus applegatei)
Bradshaw's desert-parsley (lomatium) (Lomatium bradshawii)
MacFarlane's four-o'clock (Mirabilis macfarlanei)
Marsh sandwort (Arenaria paludicola)
Nelson's checker-mallow (Sidalcea nelsoniana)
Water howellia (Howellia aquatilis)
Western lily (Lilium occidental)

Oregon Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
635 Capitol Street, NE
Salem, OR 97310

Larry Larson
OSU Agriculture Program
Eastern Oregon State College
LaGrande, OR 997850
(541) 962-3547

Oregon Resources

Natural Heritage Program
821 SE 14th Avenue
Portland, OR 97214
(503) 731-3070

The Nature Conservancy of Oregon
821 SE 14th Avenue
Portland, OR 97214
(503) 230-1221

Native Plant Society of Oregon
2584 N.W. Savier St.
Portland, OR 97210

Natural Areas Association
PO Box 1504
Bend, OR 97709

Castle Crest Wildflower Garden
Crater Lake National Park
East Rim Drive
Crater Lake, OR 97604

Oregon State University Herbarium
2082 Cordley Hall
Corvallis, OR 97331-2902
(541) 737-4106

Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
Endangered Plant Species Program
635 Capitol St. NE
Salem OR 97310-0110
(503) 986-4716

Berry Botanic Garden
11505 SW Summerville Avenue
Portland, OR 97219

Leach Botanical Garden
6704 SE 122nd Avenue
Portland, OR 97236

Mount Pisgah Arboretum
Howard Buford Recreational Area
33735 Seavey Loop Road
Eugene, OR 97405

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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