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State Plant Listings

Tennessee

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

73 Mosaic of 66 (Bluestem Prairie) and 91 (Oak-Hickory Forest)
74 Cedar Glades (Quercus-Juniperus-Sporobolus)
88 Southeastern Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea Abies)
91 Oak-Hickory Forest (Quercus-Carya)
94 Mixed Mesophytic Forest (Acer-Aesculus-Fagus-Liriodendron-Quercus-Tilia)
95 Appalachian Oak Forest (Quercus)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pinus)
103 Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus-Nyssa-Taxodium)

Botanical Expert

Carl Nordman, Botanist
Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation
Division of Natural Heritage
401 Church St., 8th Floor L&C Tower
Nashville, TN 37243-0447
(615) 532-0440
(615) 532-0046 (fax)

Recommended Flora

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd Edition. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 910 pgs. + map. ISBN 0893273651.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Tennessee

Ferns

Adiantum capillus-veneris (southern maidenhair fern)
Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris marginalia (marginal wood fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio glabellus (butterweed)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Amsonia tabernaemontana (blue star)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
-Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Astilbe biternata (false goatsbeard)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia alba (cream false indigo, plains wild indigo)
Baptisia australis (blue wild indigo)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone lyonii (turtlehead)
Chrysopsis mariana (Maryland golden aster)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Collinsonia canadensis (stoneroot, citronella horsebalm)
Coreopsis auriculata (early coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Dicentra eximia (wild bleeding heart)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Hedyotis nigricans (bluets)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow, marshmallow hibiscus)
Houstonia caerulea (bluets)
Houstonia longifolia var. longifolia (long-leaved bluets, pale bluets)
Hymenocallis caroliniana (spider lily, rain lily)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Manfreda virginica (rattlesnake master, false aloe)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda didyma (beebalm, oswego tea)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Oenothera macrocarpa (Missouri evening primrose)
Orontium aquaticum (golden club)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Pachysandra procumbens (Alleghany spurge)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon smallii (small's beardtongue)
Phlox carolina (Carolina phlox)
Phlox divaricata (blue woodland phlox, sweet William)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet William)
Phlox paniculata (summer phlox, perennial phlox)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Phlox stolonifera (creeping phlox)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Ruellia humilis (wild petunia)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Sedum ternatum (wild stonecrop)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium atlanticum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium mucronatum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Spigelia marilandica (Indian pink)
Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Thermopsis villosa (bush pea)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Tradescantia virginiana (Virginia spiderwort, spider lily)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola affinis (Florida violet)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon ternarius (splitbeard bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Chasmanthium latifolium (inland sea oats, wild oats, river oats, broad-leaf uniola)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Melica nitens (three-flower melic grass)
Muhlenbergia capillaris (gulf muhly, hair grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Saccharum giganteum (sugarcane plume grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, French mulberry)
Calycanthus floridus (Carolina allspice, sweet shrub)
Castanea pumila (chinquapin)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus drummondii (rough-leaf dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla sessilifolia (southern bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina buckthorn)
Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Itea virginica (Virginia willow, sweetspire, tassel-white)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Rhododendron arborescens (smooth azalea)
Rhododendron calendulaceum (flame azalea)
Rhododendron canescens (wild, piedmont, or sweet azalea)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxterbloom azalea)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Styrax americana (American silverbells)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry, farkleberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)
Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)
Viburnum rufidulum (southern or rusty black haw)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaylussacia brachycera (box huckleberry)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Rhododendron carolinianum (Carolina rhododendron)
Rhododendron catawbiense (purple rhododendron, red laurel)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay, great laurel)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Aesculus flava (sweet buckeye, yellow buckeye)
Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye, horse chestnut)
Aesculus pavia var. pavia (red buckeye)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree, old man's beard)
Cladrastis kentukea (yellowwood)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus marshallii (parsley hawthorn)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Halesia tetraptera (Carolina silverbell)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex decidua (possum-haw, deciduous holly)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree)
Malus angustifolia (southern crabapple, wild crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus lyrata (overcup oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus shumardii (shumard oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Ilex opaca (American holly, Christmas holly)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Bignonia capreolata (cross vine)
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis crispa (leatherflower)
Clematis pitcheri (leather flower, purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape)
Wisteria frutescens (wisteria)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Blue Ridge goldenrod (Solidago spithamaea)
Cumberland rose (Conradina verticillata)
Cumberland sandwort (Arenaria cumberlandensis)
Green pitcher-plant (Sarracenia oreophila)
Large-flowered skullcap (Scutellaria montana)
Leafy prairie-clover (Dalea (Petalostemum) foliosa)
Price's potato-bean (Apios priceana)
Pyne's (Guthrie's) ground-plum (Astragalus bibullatus)
Roan Mountain bluet (Hedyotis purpurea var. Montana)
Rock cress (Arabis perstellata)
Rock gnome lichen (Gymnoderma lineare)
Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis (Heterotheca Chrysopsis) ruthii)
Small shorted pogonia (Isotria medeoloides)
Spreading avens (Geum radiatum)
Tennessee purple coneflower (Echinacea tennesseensis)
Tennessee yellow-eyed grass (Xyris tennesseensis)
Virginia spiraea (Spiraea virginiana)

Tennessee Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
Box 40627, Melrose Sta.
Nashville, TN 37204

Gilbert Rhodes
University of TN
Agricultural Extension Service
363 Ellington Plant Science
Knoxville, TN 37901
(423) 974-7208

Tennessee Resources

Division of Natural Heritage
401 Church Street Life and Casualty Tower, 14th Floor
Nashville, TN 37243
(615) 532-0431

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
50 Vantage Way, Ste. 250
Nashville, TN 37228
(615) 255-0303

Tennessee Native Plant Society
Department of Botany
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37916

Warner Park Nature Center
7311 Highway 100
Nashville, TN 37221
(615) 352-6299

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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