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State Plant Listings

Virginia

Vegetation References

Vegetation Types Present

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

65 Northern Cordgrass Prairie (Distichlis-Spartina)
94 Mixed Mesophytic Forest (Acer-Aesculus-Fagus Liriodendron-Quercus-Tilia)
95 Appalachian Oak Forest (Quercus)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest (Quercus-Carya-Pinus)
103 Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus-Nyssa-Taxodium)

Botanical Expert

J. Christopher Ludwig, Staff Botanist
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation
Division of Natural Heritage
1500 E. Main St., Suite 312
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 225-4855
(804) 371-2674 (fax)

Recommended Flora

Harvill, A.M.; T.R. Bradley; C.E. Stevens; T.F. Wieboldt; D.M.E. Ware; D.W. Ogle; G.W. Ramsey; G.P Fleming. 1992 Atlas of the Virginia Flora, 3rd Edition. Virginia Botanical Associates, Rt. 1, Box 63, Burkeville, VA 23922.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Virginia

Cactus

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Dryopteris marginalia (marginal wood fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalia (royal fern)
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)
Woodwardia virginica (Virginia chain fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanulastrum americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Aruncus dioicus (goat's beard)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Astilbe biternata (false goatsbeard)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Cardamine concatenata (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Chrysogonum virginianum (green-and-gold)
Chrysopsis mariana (Maryland golden aster)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane, black cohosh)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Collinsonia canadensis (stoneroot, citronella horsebalm)
Coreopsis auriculata (early coreopsis)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis tripteris (tall coreopsis)
Coreopsis verticillata (whorled coreopsis)
Delphinium tricorne (dwarf larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)
Dicentra eximia (wild bleeding heart)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower)
Eupatorium fistulosum doe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. nuttallii (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana clausa (bottle gentian)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heuchera americana (alumroot)
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow, marshmallow hibiscus)
Hydrastis canadensis (golden seal)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris cristata (dwarf crested iris)
Iris virginica (southern blue flag)
Kosteletzkya virginica (seashore mallow)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Lilium michauxii (Carolina lily)
Linum virginianum (woodland flax)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda didyma (beebalm, oswego tea)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Orontium aquaticum (golden club)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Phlox Carolina (Carolina phlox)
Phlox divaricata (blue woodland phlox, sweet William)
Phlox paniculata (summer phlox, perennial phlox)
Phlox stolonifera (creeping phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans (Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (slender mountain mint)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola americana
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Rhexia virginica (meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia fulgida (black-eyed Susan, orange coneflower)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Ruellia caroliniensis (wild petunia)
Salvia lyrata (cancer weed, lyre-leaf sage)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Sedum ternatum (wild stonecrop)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silene virginica (fire pink)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium atlanticum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium mucronatum (eastern blue-eyed grass)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Tradescantia virginiana (Virginia spiderwort, spider lily)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zephyranthes atamasca (atamasco lily, Easter lily)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis perennans (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)
Andropogon ternarius (splitbeard bluestem)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge)
Arundinaria gigantea (giant cane)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Chasmanthium latifolium (inland sea oats, wild oats, river oats, broad-leaf uniola)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia flexuosa (tufted hairgrass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Muhlenbergia capillaris (gulf muhly, hair grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Saccharum giganteum (sugarcane plume grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina patens (marsh hay cordgrass, salt meadow cordgrass)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gama grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Baccharis halimifolia (sea myrtle, groundsel bush)
Castanea pumila (chinquapin)
Ceanothus americanus (New jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Clethra alnifolia (summer sweet)
Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum ssp. amomum (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Euonymus americana (strawberry bush, brook euonymus, hearts-a-bustin')
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina buckthorn)
Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea)
Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides (St. Andrew's cross)
Hypericum prolificum (shrubby St. John's wort)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Itea virginica (Virginia willow, sweetspire, tassel-white)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (male-berry, male-blueberry)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron atlanticum (dwarf, or coastal azalea)
Rhododendron calendulaceum (flame azalea)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxterbloom azalea)
Rhododendron prinophyllum (roseshell azalea, early azalea)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac)
Rhus copallinum (dwarf or winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus hirta (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa Carolina (Carolina rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry, farkleberry)
Vaccinium corymbosom (highbush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)
Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw, nanny berry)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Ilex glabra (inkberry, bitter gallberry)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Leucothoe axillaris (coast leucothoe)
Pieris floribunda (fetter-bush, mountain andromeda)
Rhododendron catawbiense (purple rhododendron, red laurel)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay, great laurel)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer barbatum (Florida maple, southern sugar maple)
Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Aesculus flava (sweet buckeye, yellow buckeye)
Amelanchier canadensis (shadblow serviceberry, Juneberry)
Betula lenta (cherry birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya alba (mockernut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis laevigata (sugarberry, hackberry)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree, old man's beard)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Cyrilla racemiflora (leatherwood, yiti)
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon)
Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (beech)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Halesia tetraptera (Carolina silverbell)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex decidua (possum-haw, deciduous holly)
Ilex opaca (American holly, Christmas holly)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree)
Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay, swampbay)
Malus angustifolia (southern crabapple, wild crabapple)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum, tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore, plane-tree)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash, common hoptree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus falcata (southern red oak, Spanish oak)
Quercus laurifolia (laurel oak)
Quercus lyrata (overcup oak)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus shumardii (shumard oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae, northern white cedar)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Tsuga caroliniana (Carolina hemlock)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Persea borbonia (red bay)
Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)
Quercus virginiana (live oak, coastal live oak, southern live oak)

Vines (deciduous)

Bignonia capreolata (cross vine)
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Passiflora incarnata (passion flower, maypop)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape)

Vine (evergreen)

Gelsemium sempervirens (yellow jessamine, Carolina jessamine)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)
Northeastern (Barbed bristle) bulrush (Scirpus ancistrochaetus)
Peter's Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei)
Sensitive joint-vetch (Aeschynomene virginica)
Shale barren rock-cress (Arabis serotina)
Small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides)
Smooth coneflower (Echinacea laevigata)
Swamp pink (Helonias bullata)
Virginia round-leaf birch (Betula uber)
Virginia spiraea (Spiraea virginiana)

Virginia Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed Law)

Department of Agriculture
Plant Protection Office
PO Box 1163
Richmond, VA 23209

Scott Hagood
Virginia Tech, Weed Science
410 Price Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061
(540) 231-6762

Virginia Resources

Division of Natural Heritage
Department of Conservation
1500 East Main Street, Ste. 312
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 786-7951

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
1233-A Cedars Court
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 295-6106

Virginia Native Plant Society
PO Box 844
Annandale, VA 22003

Chesapeake Bay Foundation
1001 E. Main St.
Richmond, VA 23219

Eastern Native Plant Alliance
PO Box 6101
McLean, VA 22106

Orland E. White Arboretum at Blandy
Experimental Farm
U.S. Route 50 East
Route 2, PO Box 210
Boyce, VA 22620

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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