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Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

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State Plant Listings

Vermont

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

87 Northeastern Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
99 Northern Hardwoods-Spruce Forests (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Picea-Tsuga)

Botanical Expert

Everett Marshall, Data Manager
Vermont Nongame and Natural Heritage
Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department
103 S. Main St.
Waterbury, VT 05671-0501
(802) 241-8715

Recommended Flora

Gleason, H.A.; A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd Edition. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 910 pgs. + map. ISBN 0893273651.

Missouri Botanical Garden. Flora of North America (when available). Missouri Botanical Garden. Flora of North America Project. St. Louis, MO.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Vermont

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Dryopteris marginalia (marginal wood fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalia (royal fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris novaboracensis (New York fern, tapering fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)

Forbs (perennials)

Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Antennaria neglecta (pussytoes)
Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum Back-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Claytonia caroliniana (broad-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica (goldthread)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana clausa (bottle gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geum rivale (purple avens, water avens)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Lilium canadense (wild yellow lily, Canada lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Smilacina racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod, wreath goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex rostrata var. utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus validus (great bulrush)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cornus amomum var. Schuetzeana (swamp dogwood, silky dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Rubus odoratus (thimbleberry)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (wild raisin)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Gaultheria hispidula (creeping snowberry)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel, lambkill kalmia)
Kalmia polifolia (swamp laurel, bog laurel)
Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea, muskeg tea)
Taxus canadensis (Canada yew)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Juglans cinerea (butternut, white walnut)
Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus nigra (Canada plum)
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Picea glauca (white spruce)
Pinus resinosa (red pine, Norway pine)pine)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae, northern white cedar)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Jesup's milk-vetch (Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi)
Northeastern (Barbed bristle) bulrush (Scirpus ancistrochaetus)

Vermont Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Seed Law)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
116 State Street, Drawer 20
Montpelier, VT 05320

Sid Boseworth
University of Vermont
Plant & Soils
Burlington, VT 05405
(802) 650-0478

Vermont Resources

Nongame & Natural Heritage Program
103 South Main Street
Waterbury, VT 05671
(802) 241-3700

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
27 State Street
Montpelier, VT 05602
(802) 229-4425

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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