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Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

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State Plant Listings

Washington

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

1 Spruce-Cedar-Hemlock Forest (Picea-Thuja-Tsuga)
2 Cedar-Hemlock-Douglas Fir Forest (Thuja-Tsuga-Pseudotsuga)
3 Silver Fir-Douglas Fir Forest (Abies-Pseudotsuga)
4 Fir-Hemlock Forest (Abies-Tsuga)
10 Western Ponderosa Forest (Pinus)
11 Douglas Fir Forest (Pseudotsuga)
13 Grand Fir-Douglas Fir Forest (Abies-Pseudotsuga)
14 Western Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
22 Oregon Oakwoods (Quercus)
43 fescue-Wheatgrass (Festuca-Agropyron)
44 Wheatgrass-Bluegrass (Agropyron-Poa)
45 Alpine Meadows and Barren (Agrostis, Carex, Festuca, Poa)
49 Sagebrush Steppe (Artemisia-Agropyron)

Botanical Expert

John Gamon, Botanist
Natural Heritage
Department of Natural Resources
PO Box 47016
Olympia, WA 98504-7016
(360) 902-1661
(360) 902-1783 (fax)
Internet: john.gamon@dnr.wa.gov

Recommended Flora

Hitchcock, C.L. and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 730 pgs. + illus.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Washington

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Aspidotis densa (rock brake, cliff brake, Indian's dream)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Blechnum spicant (deer fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cheilanthes gracillima (lace fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris arguta (coast wood fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Polypodium glycyrrhiza (licorice fern)
Polypodium scouleri (rock polypody)
Polystichum imbricans (dwarf western sword fern)
Polystichum munitum (western sword fern)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Clarkia amoena (farewell-to-spring, herald-of-summer)
Cleome serrulata (Rocky Mountain beeplant)
Collinsia parviflora var. grandiflora (blue lips)
Collomia grandiflora (collomia)
Erysimum capitatum (western wallflower, prairie rocket)
Gilia capitata (globe gilia, blue gilia)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Ipomopsis aggregata (sky rocket, scarlet gilia)
Layia glandulosa (tidy tips)
Lupinus bicolor (pigmy-leaved lupine, miniature lupine)
Mentzelia laevicaulis (blazing star, evening star, stick leaf)
Nemophila breviflora (Great Basin nemophila)

Forbs (perennials)

Achlys triphylla (vanilla leaf)
Aconitum columbianum (western monkshood)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium validum (swamp onion)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone multifida (early thimbleweed, cut-leaf anemone, Pacific anemone)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia flavescens (yellow columbine)
.Aquilegia formosa (scarlet columbine)
Armeria maritima (sea pink, thrift)
Arnica cordifolia (heartleaf arnica)
Artemisia douglasiana (Douglas mugwort)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (sylvan goat's beard)
Asarum caudatum (wild ginger)
Aster ascendens (purple aster, Pacific aster)
Aster foliaceus (leafy aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Balsamorrhiza sagittata (balsamroot)
Calochortus macrocarpus (bigpod mariposa)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Claytonia lanceolata (spring beauty)
Clematis hirsutissima (clematis, vase flower, leather flower, lion's beard)
Clintonia uniflora (bride's bonnet, queen cup, bead lily)
Delphinium glareosum (delphinium)
Delphinium glaucum (tower larkspur)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Dicentra formosa (western bleeding heart)
Disporum smithii (fairy bells)
Dodecatheon hendersonii (Henderson's shooting stars)
Dodecatheon jeffreyi Jeffrey's shooting stars)
Dryas drummondii (yellow dryas)
Dryas octopetala (mountain dryas, white mountain avens)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Epilobium latifolium (dwarf fireweed)
Erigeron compositus (alpine daisy)
Erigeron speciosus (showy fleabane)
Eriogonum umbellatum (sulfur buckwheat)
Eriophyllum lanatum (woolly sunflower, Oregon sunshine)
Erythronium grandiflorum (glacier lily, yellow fawn lily, dogtooth violet)
Erythronium oregonum (Oregon fawn lily)
Fragaria chiloensis (coast strawberry)
Fritillaria lanceolata (checker lily, mission bells, chocolate lily)
Gaillardia aristata (blanket flower, gaillardia, brown-eyed Susan)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Geranium viscossisimum (sticky wild geranium)
Geum triflorum (prairie smoke, purple avens)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Gutierrezia sarothrae (broom snakeweed, matchbrush)
Hedysarum boreale (sweet vetch, sweet broom)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera micrantha (common alumroot)
Iris missouriensis (Rocky Mountain iris, western blue flag)
Iris tenax (Oregon iris)
Lewisia rediviva (bitter root)
Lilium columbianum (Columbia lily, Oregon lily, wild tiger lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Linum lewisii (wild blue flax)
Luetkea pectinata (Alaska spiraea, partridge foot)
Lupinus arcticus (arctic lupine)
Maianthemum dilatatum (false lily-of-the-valley)
Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Maianthemum stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Mertensia ciliata (mountain bluebells)
Mimulus primuloides (primrose monkey flower)
Minuartia obtusiloba (cushion sandwort)
Monardella odoratissima (coyote mint, mountain pennyroyal)
Myosotis asiatica (forget-me-not)
Nothochelone nemorosa (woodland penstemon)
Osmorhiza berteroi (mountain sweet cicely)
Oxalis oregana (redwood sorrel)
Penstemon davidsonii (blue color mat, alpine penstemon)
Penstemon deustus (hot rock penstemon)
Penstemon fruticosus (shrubby penstemon)
Penstemon rupicola (penstemon)
Penstemon serrulatus (Cascade penstemon, coast penstemon)
Penstemon speciosus (sagebrush penstemon)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Phacelia sericea (silky phacelia)
Phlox diffusa (mat phlox)
Phlox speciosa (showy phlox)
Polemonium occidentale Jacob's ladder)
Polemonium pulcherrimum (alpine Jacob's ladder, skunk leaf)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifida (pasque flower, wild crocus)
Ranunculus alismifolius (meadow buttercup)
Ranunculus cardiophyllus (buttercup)
Satureja douglasii (yerba buena)
Saxifraga bronchialis (spotted saxifrage, matted saxifrage)
Saxifraga cespitosa (tufted saxifrage)
Saxifraga oppositifolia (purple saxifrage)
Sedum spathulifolium (common stonecrop, broad-leaved sedum)
Silene acaulis (moss campion)
Sisyrinchium bellum (blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium californicum (golden-eyed grass)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago multiradiata (northern goldenrod, mountain goldenrod)
Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia (gooseberry leaf globemallow)
Sphaeralcea munroana (Munro's globe mallow, white-leaved globe mallow)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Tellima grandiflora (fringe cup)
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. montana (golden pea, buckbean)
Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (sugar scoop, western foam flower)
Tolmiea menziesii (piggyback plant, youth-on-age, thousand mothers)
Trientalis borealis ssp. latifolia (western starflower)
Trillium ovatum (coast trillium, western wakerobin)
Vancouveria hexandra (inside-out flower)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola glabella (smooth yellow or stream violet)
Viola langsdorfii (Alaska violet)
Viola nuttallii (yellow violet)
Viola vallicola (yellow violet)
Wyethia angustifolia (narrowleaf mule ears)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis exarata (spikebent, spike red top)
Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (red three awn)
Bromus carinatus (California brome)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex macrocephala (bighead sedge)
Carex nebrascensis (Nebraska sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Carex vernacula (sedge)
Danthonia californica (California oatgrass)
Danthonia intermedia (timber oatgrass)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Dichanthelium acuminatum var. acuminatum (panic grass)
Distichlis spicata (seashore saltgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye)
Elymus lanceolatus (thickspike wheatgrass)
Festuca idahoensis (Idaho fescue, blue bunchgrass)
Festuca ovina (sheep fescue)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe occidentalis (vanilla grass, California sweet grass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Koeleria macrantha dune grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Leymus cinereus (Great Basin wild rye)
Leymus mollis (American dune grass, beach wild rye)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Phleum alpinum (alpine timothy)
Poa alpina (alpine bluegrass)
Poa secunda (pine bluegrass)
Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa nelsonii (Columbia needlegrass)
Trisetum spicatum (spike trisetum)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Artemisia frigida (prairie sagewort, fringed sage)
Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush, wingscale)
Atriplex confertifolia (spiny saltbush, shadscale saltbush, hop sage)
Betula nana (bog birch, dwarf birch)
Ceanothus integerrimus (deer brush)
Ceanothus sanguineus (redstem ceanothus, wild lilac)
Chrysothamnus nauseosus (rabbit brush, chamisa)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Crataegus douglasii (black hawthorn)
Empetrum nigrum (crowberry)
Holodiscus discolor (cream bush, ocean spray, mountain spray)
Krascheninnikovia lanata (winterfat)
Lonicera involucrata (black twinberry, bear berry honeysuckle)
Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian plum, oso berry)
Philadelphus lewisii (wild mock orange, syringa)
Physocarpus capitatus (western ninebark)
Physocarpus malvaceus (mallow ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Purshia tridentata (antelope brush)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Ribes aureum (golden currant)
Ribes cereum (wax currant, western red currant, squaw currant)
Ribes laxiflorum (trailing black currant)
Ribes sanguineum (pink-flowered currant, red flowering currant)
Rosa nutkana (nootka rose)
Rosa woodsii (western wild rose, woods rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus parviflorus (western thimbleberry)
Rubus spectabilis (salmon berry)
Rubus ursinus (western blackberry)
Salix arctica (arctic willow)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix scouleriana (western pussy willow, Scouler's willow)
Salvia dorrii (grayball sage)
Sambucus cerulea (blue elderberry)
Sambucus racemosa var. melanocarpa (black elderberry)
Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood)
Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry)
Sorbus scopulina (western mountain ash)
Spiraea douglasii (western spiraea, hardhack spiraea)
Spiraea splendens var. splendens (subalpine spiraea)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Vaccinium parvifolium (red huckleberry)
Vaccinium uliginosum (alpine blueberry, bog blueberry)
Viburnum edule (moosewood viburnum)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Arctostaphylos columbiana (hairy manzanita)
Arctostaphylos nevadensis (pinemat manzanita)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush, Great Basin sagebrush)
Ceanothus velutinus (mountain balm, buckbush)
Cercocarpus ledifolius (curl-leaf mountain mahogany)
Gaultheria shallon (salal)
Grayia spinosa (spiny hopsage)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Kalmia polifolia (swamp laurel, bog laurel)
Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea, muskeg tea)
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape)
Mahonia nervosa var. nervosa (Cascade Oregon grape)
Myrica californica (California wax myrtle)
Paxistima myrsinites (Oregon box, myrtle boxwood, mountain lover)
Phyllodoce empetriformis (pink mountain heather)
Rhododendron macrophyllum (Pacific rhododendron, California rose-bay)
Vaccinium ovatum (evergreen huckleberry)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer circinatum (Oregon vine maple)
Acer glabrum (Rocky Mountain maple)
Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple, canyon maple)
Alnus rhombifolia (white alder)
Betula occidentalis (mountain birch, water birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (netleaf hackberry)
Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood, mountain dogwood)
Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)
Larix occidentalis (western larch, western tamarack)
Populus balsamifera (black cottonwood)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Quercus garryana (Oregon post oak)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies grandis (grand fir, giant fir)
Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir)
Abies procera (noble fir)
Arbutus menziesii (Pacific madrone, Oregon laurel, laurelwood)
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Alaska cedar, yellow cedar, Nootka cedar)
Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper)
Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce)
Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)
Pinus contorta (beach pine)
Pinus contorta var. murrayana (lodgepole pine)
Pinus monticola (western white pine)
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
Taxus brevifolia (western yew, Pacific yew)
Thuja plicata (western red cedar)
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)
Tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Clematis columbiana (purple virgin's bower)
Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Bradshaw's desert-parsley (lomatium) (Lomatium bradshawii)
Marsh sandwort (Arenaria paludicola)
Nelson's checker-mallow (Sidalcea nelsoniana)
Water howellia (Howellia aquatilis)

Washington Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed Law)

Department of Agriculture
Weed Control Board
1851 S. Central Place, #211
Kent, WA 98031

Joseph Yenish
Crop and Soil Sciences
Johnson 201 A, Box 646240
Pullman, WA 99164
(509) 335-2961

Washington Resources

Natural Heritage Program
Department of Natural Resources
PO Box 47016
Olympia, WA 98504
(360) 902-1340

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
217 Pine Street, Ste. 1100
Seattle, WA 98101
(206) 343-4344

Washington Native Plant Society
PO Box 28690
Seattle, WA 98118

Nature Scaping Wildlife Botanical Gardens
11000 N E 149th Street
Vancouver, WA 98682

Sarah Reichard
Center for Urban Horticulture
University of Washington
PO Box 354115
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 616-5020

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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