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State Plant Listings

Wisconsin

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

66 Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum)
72 Oak Savanna (Quercus-Andropogon)
84 Great Lakes Spruce-Fir Forest (Picea-Abies)
85 Conifer Bog (Picea-Larix-Thuja)
86 Great Lakes Pine Forest (Pinus)
90 Maple-Basswood Forest (Acer-Tilia)
97 Northern Hardwoods (Acer-Betula-Fagus-Tsuga)
98 Northern Hardwoods-Fir Forests (Acer-Betula-Abies-Tsuga)

Botanical Expert

Kelly Kearns, Native Plant Specialist
Ecosystem and Diversity Conservation Section
Bureau of Endangered Resources
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707
(608) 267-5066
(608) 266-2925 (fax)
Internet: kearns@dnr.state.wi.us

Recommended Flora

Curtis, ). 1987. The Vegetation of Wisconsin: An Ordination of Plant Communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. 657 pgs. + illus. maps. ISBN 0299019403.

Checklist of Vascular Plants of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison Herbarium. Mark A. Wetks, Theodore S. Cochrane, Merel R. Block, Hugh H. I. H. S. Final version anticipated early 1999.

Native Plants for Landscape Use in Wisconsin

Cactus

Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear)

Ferns

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bladder fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (shield fern,, toothed wood fern, spinulose shield fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern, buckler fern)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern, bead fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Woodsia ilvensis (rusty woodsia)

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Campanula americanum (American bellflower, tall bellflower)
Corydalis sempervirens (pale corydalis)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)

Forbs (perennials)

(sweet flag, calamus)
Actaea pachypoda (white baneberry)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone patens (windflower)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed, tall anemone)
Angelica atropurpurea (angelica)
Antennaria neglecta (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata (field wormwood)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias amplexicaulis (milkweed)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Asclepias viridiflora
Aster azureus (sky blue aster)
Aster cordifolius var. sagittifolius (blue heart-leaved aster)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster linariifolius
Aster lucidulus (swamp aster)
Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster oolentangiensis (sky blue aster)
Aster pilosus (frost aster)
Aster puniceus (red-stem aster, swamp aster)
Aster sericeus (silky aster)
Aster simplex (marsh aster)
Aster umbellatus (flat-top aster)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Baptisia alba (white false indigo)
Baptisia alba var. macrophylla (cream false indigo, plains wild indigo)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold, cowslip)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Cardamine diphylla (two-leaved toothwort)
Castilleja sessiliflora (downy painted cup)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane, black cohosh)
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)
Clintonia borealis (clintonia, blue-bead lily)
Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica (goldthread)
Coreopsis lanceolata (lance-leaved coreopsis)
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry)
Dalea candida (white prairie clover)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Dodecatheon meadia (shooting star)
Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)
Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed, willow herb)
Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnakes master, button snake-root)
Erythronium americanum (eastern trout lily, yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium purpureum (Joe-pye weed)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Gentiana saponaria (closed gentian, soapwort gentian)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium, cranesbill)
Geum rivale (purple avens, water avens)
Geum triflorum (prairie smoke, purple avens)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus giganteus (giant sunflower)
Helianthus laetiflorus (showy sunflower)
Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (woodland sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (oxeye sunflower)
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (sharp-lobed hepatica)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera richardsonii (alum root)
Houstonia longifolia var. longifolia (long-leaved bluets, pale bluets)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypericum pyramidatum (great St. John's wort)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Iris virginica var. shrevei (blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris cylindracea (dwarf blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Lilium michiganense (Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Lilium superbum (Turk's cap lily)
Linnaea borealis (twinflower)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lycopus americanus (bugleweed)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley, Canada mayflower)
Mentha arvensis (mint)
Mertensia virginica (bluebells)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry)
Monarda didyma (Oswego tea)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera serrulata (evening primrose)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Penstemon gracilis (large penstemon)
Penstemon grandiflorus (large-flowered penstemon)
Pentaphylloides floribunda (potentilla, shrubby cinquefoil)
Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii (blue phlox, sweet William)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polemonium reptans Jacob's ladder, Greek valerian)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)
Potentilla arguta (white cinquefoil, prairie cinquefoil, tall cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifida (pasque flower, wild crocus)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (mountain mint)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus hispidus (early buttercup, tufted buttercup)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Rudbeckia subtomentosa (sweet black-eyed Susan)
Sagittaria latifolia (arrowhead)
Sanguinaria candensis (bloodroot)
Scutellaria galericulata (marsh skullcap)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (three-toothed cinquefoil)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Silphium terebinthinaceum (prairie dock)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Smilacena racemosa (false Solomon's seal, false spikenard)
Smilacena stellatum (starry Solomon's seal)
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod, plume goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Solidago ulmifolia (elm-leaved goldenrod)
Streptopus roseus (rosy twisted stalk)
Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy)
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)
Tradescantia ohiensis (Ohio spiderwort)
Trientalis borealis ssp. borealis (starflower)
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)
Trillium erectum (wakerobin, purple trillium)
Uvularia grandiflora (bellwort, merrybells)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wildoats, merrybells)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)
Viola canadensis (Canada violet)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pedata (bird-foot violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Viola soraria (common blue violet, meadow violet)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis scabra (ticklegrass, fly-away grass)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Bromus kalmii (prairie brome, wild chess)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Calamovilfa longifolia (sandreed grass, prairie sandreed)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex lacustris ( lake sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
Elymus lanceolatus (thickspike wheatgrass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass, tumblegrass)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus effusus var. solutus (soft rush)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha dune grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus americana (3-square bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus fluviatilis (river bulrush)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Scirpus validus (soft stem bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Sparganium eurycarpum (giant bur-reed)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass)
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus (tall dropseed)
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed)
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Stipa spartea (porcupine grass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Alnus incana (speckled alder, mountain alder)
Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry, shadbush, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Artemisia frigida (prairie sagewort, fringed sage)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea, red root)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
Cornus alternifolia (pogoda dogwood, alternate- leaved dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Cornus sericea (re twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Dirca palustris (leatherwood, ropebark)
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry, black alder)
Physocarpus opulifolius (ninebark)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (hoptree)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa Carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa setigera (Illinois or prairie rose)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (scarlet elderberry, red-berried elder)
Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush, hardhack)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (coralberry, Indian currant)
Vaccinium angustifolium (low-bush blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Andromeda polifolia var. glaucophylla (bog rosemary)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Gaultheria hispidula (creeping snowberry)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen, checkerberry)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper, creeping savin)
Kalmia polifolia.(swamp laurel, bag laurel)
Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea, muskeg tea)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (blue beech, hornbeam, musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut, swamp hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)
Crataegus mollis (downy hawthorn)
Crataegus punctata (dotted hawthorn, white thorn)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)
Malus ioensis var. ioensis (prairie crabapple)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus nigra (Canada plum')
Prunus pensylvanica (fire or pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinkapin oak, chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sorbus americana (mountain ash)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Picea glauca (white spruce)
Pinus banksiana (Jack pine)
Pinus resinosa (red pine, Norway pine)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae, northern white cedar)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis (purple clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris)
Eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)
Fassett's locoweed (Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea)
Northern wild monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense)
Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri)
Prairie bush-clover (lespedeza leptostachya)

Wisconsin Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Plant Industry
PO Box 8911
Madison, WI 53708

Chris Boerboom, Agronomy
University of Wisconsin
1575 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-1392

Wisconsin Resources

Natural Heritage Program
WDNR, PO Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707-7921
(608) 264-605 7

The Nature Conservancy
633 W. Main St.
Madison, WI 53703
(608) 251-8140

Wild Ones
PO Box 23576
Milwaukee, WI 53223-0576

University of Wisconsin Arboretum
1207 Seminole Highway
Madison, WI 53711
(608) 262-2746

Evelyn Howell
John Harrington
Restoration and Management
University of Wisconsin
25 Agriculture Hall
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 263-6964

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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