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Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

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Roadside Use of Native Plants

Partial Composition of 129 Types or Plant Communities

Alaska

AK1 Hemlock-spruce forest
(Tsuga-Picea)
AK2 Spruce-birch forest
(Picea-Betula)
AK3 Black spruce forest
(Picea)
AK4 Muskeg
(Eriophorum-Sphagnum-Betula)
AK5 Alder thickets
(Alnus)
AK6 Cottonsedge tundra
(Eriophorum)
AK7 Watersedge tundra
(Carex)
AK8 Dryas meadows and barren
(Dryas-Carex-Betula)
AK9 Aleutian meadows
(Calamagrostis-Anemone)
AKIO Aleutian heath and barren
(Empetrum-Vaccinium)

Hawaii

H11 Sclerophyllous forest, shrubland, and grassland
(Heteropogon-Opuntia-Prosopis)
H12 Guava mixed forest
(Aleurites-Hibiscus-MangileraPsidium Schinus)
H13 Ohia lehua fores
(Metrosideros-Cibotium)
H14 Lama-manele forest
(Diospyros-Sapindus)
H15 Koa forest
(Acacia)
H16 Koa-mamani parkland
(Acacia Deschampsia-Myoporum-Sophora)
H17 Grassland, microphyllous shrubland, and barren
(Deschampsia-Styphelia-Vaccinium)

Puerto Rico

PRI Subtropical dry forest
(Bosque seco subtropical)
PR2 Subtropical moist forest
(Bosque humedo subtropical)
PR3 Subtropical wet forest
(Bosque muy humedo subtropical)
PR4 Subtropical rain forest
(Bosque pluvial subtropical)
PR5 Lower montane wet forest
(Bosque muy humedo montano bajo)
PR6 Lower montane rain forest
(Bosque pluvial montano bajo)

48 Contiguous States

Type Description Dominants Other Components
1 Spruce-Cedar-Hemlock-Forest Dense forests of tall needleleaf evergreen trees, rarely with an admixture of broadleaf deciduous trees Picea stichensis Sitka spruce
Thuja plicata western red cedar
Tsuga heterophylla western hemlock
Abies grandis
Alnus rubra
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (southern part)
Pseudotsuga menziesii
2 Cedar-Hemlock-Douglas Fir Forest Dense forests of very tall needleleaf evergreen trees Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Thuja plicata western red cedar
Tsuga heterophylla western hemlock
Abies grandis
Acer circinatum
Acer macrophyllum
Berberis nervosa
Gaultheria shallon
Rubus spectabilis
In southernmost part only:
Pinus lambertiana
Pinus ponderosa
3 Silver Fir-Douglas Fir Forest Dense forests of tall needleleaf evergreen trees with patches of shrubby undergrowth Abies amabilis Pacific silver fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Abies grandis
Abies procera
Acer circinatum
Arctostaphylos nevadensis
Pachystima myrsinityes
Rhododendron macrophyllum
Thuja plicata
Tsuga heterophylla
Vaccinium membranaceum
Type Description Dominants Other Components
4 Fir-Hemlock Forest Dense or medium dense forests of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir
Tsuga mertensiana mountain hemlock
Abies amabilis
Picea engelmannii
Pinus albicaulis
Pinus contorta
Pinus monticola
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Vaccinum spp.
Xerophyllum tenax
5 Mixed Conifer Forest Tall, needleleaf, evergreen trees, occasionally with broadleaf trees and shrubs Abies concolor white fir
Librocedrus decurrens incense cedar
Pinus lambertiana sugar pine
Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Arctostaphylos mariposa
Arctostaphylos patula
Ceanothus integerrimus
Chamaebatia foliolosa
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa (southern part only, where it may dominate)
Quercus chrysolepis
Quercus kelloggii
Ribes nevadense
Ribes roezlii
Rubus parviflorus
6 Redwood Forest Dense forests of very tall needleleaf, evergreen trees, sometimes with much undergrowth Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Sequoia sempervirens redwood
Abies grandis
Gaultheria shallon
Lithocarpus densiflorus
Myrica californica
Oxalis oregona
Polystichum munitum
Rhodendron macrophyllum
Tsuga heterophylla
Vaccinium ovatum
Vancouveria parviflora
Whipplea modesta
Type Description Dominants Other Components
7 Red Fir Forest Tall dense forests of needleleaf evergreen trees with patches of shrubby undergrowth Abies magnifica red fir Castanopsis sempervirens
Ceanothus cordulatus
Ipomopsis aggregata
Pinus contorta
Pinus jeffreyi
Pinus monticola
Populus tremuloides
8 Lodgepole Pine-Subalpine Forest Fairly dense to quite open needleleaf evergreen forest; medium tall in lower elevations to krummholz in high altitudes with numerous shrubs and herbaceous plants Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine
Pinus balfouriana foxtail pine
Pinus contorta lodgepone pine
Aquilegia pubescens
Castilleja culbertsonii
Eriogonum incanum
Pedicularis attolens
Pentstemon heterodoxus
Pinus flexilis
Potentilla breweri
Ribes cereum
Salix petrophila
9 Pine-Cypress Forest Rather dense forest of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees Cupressus goveniana Gowen cypress
Cupressus macrocarpa Monterey cypress
Pinus contorta lodgepone (beach) pine
Pinus muricata bishop pine
Pinus radiata Monterey pine
Arctostaphylos nummularia
Ledum glandulosum
Xerophyllum tenax
Type Description Dominants Other Components
10 Western Ponderosa Forest Medium dense to open forest of tall needleleaf evergreen trees with a fairly open ground cover of grasses and occasional shrubs Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Achillea millefolium var. lanulosa
Agropyron spicatum
Arctostaphylos nevadensis (southern part)
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Carex geyeri
Festuca idahoensis
Hieracium spp.
Lupinus spp.
Poa secunda
Purshia tridentata
Symphoricarpos albus (northern part)
11 Douglas Fir Forest Medium dense forest of medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees Pseutotsuga menziesii Douglas fir Abies concolor
Larix occidentalis
Physocarpus malvaceus
Picea pungens
Picea glauca (northern part)
Pinus contorta
Pinus ponderosa (lower elevations)
Populus tremuloides
12 Cedar-Hemlock-Pine Forest Tall evergreen needleleaf forest, often very dense Pinus monticola western white pine
Thuja plicata western red cedar
Tsuga heterophylla western hemlock
Abies grandis
Larix occidentalis
Pinus ponderosa (lower elevations)
Pseutotsuga menziesii
Type Description Dominants Other Components
13 Grand Fir-Douglas Fir Tall, needleleaf evergreen forest Abies grandis grand fir
Pseutotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Larix occidentalis
Pinus monticola
Populus tremuloides
14 Western Spruce-Fir Forest Dense to open forests of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees; open forests with a synusia of shrubs and herbaceous plants Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir
Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Arnica cordifolia
Calamagrostis canadensis
Carex spp.
Larix lyallii
Menziesia ferruginea
Pinus albicaulis (northern part)
Pinus contorta
Populus tremuloides
Pseutotsuga menziesii (lower elevations)
Shepherdia canadensis
Symphoricarpos albus
Tsuga mertensiana (western part)
Vaccinium spp.
Xerophyllum tenax
15 Eastern Ponderosa Forest Medium dense to open forest of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees with a fairly open ground cover of grasses Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Agropyron smithii
Bouteloua gracilis
Stipa comata
Type Description Dominants Other Components
16 Black Hills Pine Forest Open to dense forests of tall needleleaf evergreen trees, often with much undergrowth Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine
Pseutotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Acer glabrum
Alnus tenuifolia
Aristida spp.
Blepharoneuron tricholepis
Ceanothus fendleri
Chamaebatiaria millefolium
Festuca arizonica
Holodiscus dumosus
Jamesia americana
Juniperus communis var. montana
Picea pungens
Pinus flexilis
Prunus emarginata
Ribes spp.
Salix spp.
17 Pine-Douglas Fir Forest Open to dense forests of tall needleleaf evergreen trees, often with much undergrowth Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine
Pseutotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Acer glabrum
Alnus tenuifolia
Aristida spp.
Blepharoneuron tricholepis
Ceanothus fendleri
Chamaebatiaria millefolium
Festuca arizonica
Holodiscus dumosus
Jamesia americana
Juniperus communis var. montana
Picea pungens
Pinus flexilis
Prunus emarginata
Ribes spp.
Salix spp.
18 Arizona Pine Forest Open to dense forest of needleleaf evergreen trees, medium tall or tall, frequently with a herbaceous ground cover Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Aristida spp.
Blepharoneuron tricholepis
Ceanothus fendleri
Festuca arizonica
Holodiscus dumosus
Muhlenbergia montana
Physocarpus monogynus
Pinus cembroides (southern part)
Pinus flexilis (upper elevations)
Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana (southern part)
Poa fendleriana
Pseutotsuga menziesii (upper elevations)
Quercus gambelii
Stipa spp.
Type Description Dominants Other Components
19 Spruce-Fir-Douglas Fir Forest Open to dense forest of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees with an admixture of broadleaf deciduous low trees and shrubs Abies concolor white fir
Picea pungens blue spruce
Pseutotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Acer glabrum
Amelanchier alnifolia
Chamaebatiaria millefolium
Pachystima myrsinites
Physocarpus malvacea
Populus tremuloides
Prunus virginiana
Sambucus glauca
Symphoricarpos vaccinoides
20 Southwestern Spruce-Fir Forest Dense to open stands of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica corkbark fir
Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce
Abies lasiocarpa
Acer glabrum
Juniperus communis
Pachystima myrsinites
Pinus aristata
Pinus flexilis
Populus tremuloides
Ribes spp.
Salix bebbiana
Sambucus racemosa
Symphoricarpos vaccinoides
21 juniper-Pinyon Woodland Open groves of low needleleaf evergreen trees with varying admixtures of shrubs and herbaceous plants Juniperus monosperma oneseed juniper
Juniperus osteosperma Utah juniper
Pinus edulis pinyon pine (more in eastern part)
Pinus monophylla oneleaf pine (more in western part)
Agropyron smithii
Artemisia tridentata (not in southern part)
Juniperus occidentalis
Artemisia arbuscula
Balsamorrhiza sagittata
Festuca idahoensis
Lithospermum ruderale
Lupinus sericeus
Poa secunda
Purshia tridentata
Sitanion spp.
Type Description Dominants Other Components
22 Oregon Oakwoods Broadleaf deciduous forests of medium tall trees, often with an undergrowth of grass and some shrubs Quercus garryana Oregon white oak Agrostis tenuis
Amelanchier spp.
Arbutus menziesii (southern part)
Bromus laevipes
Danthonia californica
Elymus glaucus
Festuca californica
Festuca rubra
Melica bulbosa
Rhus diversiloba
23 Mesquite Bosques Open to dense forests of low, broadleaf deciduous trees Prosopis juliflora var. velutina mesquite Acacia greggii
Baccharis emoryi
Baccharis glutinosa
Cercidium floridum
Clematis neomesicana
Cucurbita digitata
Cucurbita foetidissima
Dalea spinosa
Hymenoclea monogyra
Lycium spp.
Olneya tesota
Populus fremontii
Prosopis pubescens
Salix gooddingii
24 Mosaic of Cedar-Hemlock-Douglas Fir Forest (2) and Oregon Oakwoods (26)
Type Description Dominants Other Components
25 California Mixed Evergreen Forest Medium tall to tall broadleaf and needleleaf evergreen forest with an admixture of broadleaf deciduous trees Arbutus menziesii madrone
Castanopsis chrysophylla golden chinquapin
Lithocarpus densiflorus tanbark oak
Pseutotsuga menziesii Douglas fir
Quercus chrysolepis canyon live oak
Quercus wislizenii interior live oak
Umbellularia californica California laurel
Acer macrophyllum
Aesculus californica
Arctostaphylos manzanita
Ceanothus aprryi
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus
Cornus nutallii
Quercus douglasii
Quercus garryana
Quercus kelloggii
26 California Oakwoods Medium tall or low broadleaf evergreen or semideciduous forests with an admixture of low to medium tall needleleaf evergreen trees Pinus coulteri Coulter pine (higher elevations)
Pinus sabiniana digger pine
Quercus agrifolia coast live oak
Quercus chrysolepis canyon live oak
Quercus douglasii blue oak
Quercus lobata valley oak
Quercus wislizenii interior live oak
Aesculus californica
Ceanothus cuneatus
Cercis occidentalis
Eriodyction californicum
Juglans californica (southern part)
Quercus englemannii (southern part)
Rhamnus californica
Rhus integrifolia (southern part)
Rhus ovata (southern part)
Ribes quercetorum
Umbellularia californica
27 Oak-juniper Woodland Low open to dense forest of broadleaf and needleleaf evergreen trees and varying undergrowth Juniperus deppeana alligator juniper
Juniperus monosperma oneseed juniper
Quercus emoryi Emory oak
Quercus oblongifolia Mexican blue oak (western part)
Arctostaphylos pungens
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua gracilia
Bouteloua hirsuta
Ceanothus spp.
Cowania mexicana
Dasylirion wheeleri
Garrya spp.
Nolina microcarpa
Nolina texana
Pinus cembroides (higher elevations)
Pinus leiophylla var. chihuahuana (higher elevations)
Quercus grisea
Quercus hypoleucoides
Quercus turbinella
Quercus undulata
Rhus choriophylla
Rhus microphylla
Yucca schottii
Type Description Dominants Other Components
28 Transition between Oak-Juniper Woodland (27) and Mountain Mahogany-Oak Scrub (31)
29 Chaparral Very dense vegetation of broadleaf evergreen sclerophyll shrubs Adenostoma fasciculatum chamise
Arctostaphylos spp. manzanita
Ceanothus spp. California lilac
Arctostaphylos glandulosa
Arctostaphylos glauca (southern part)
Arctostaphylos manzanita (northern part)
Arctostaphylos parryana
Arctostaphylos pungens (southern part)
Arctostaphylos viscida (northern part)
Ceanothus cuneatus
Ceanothus foliosus
Ceanothus impressus
Ceanothus integerrimus
Ceanothus leucodermis
Ceanothus sorediatus
Ceanothus spinosus
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus
Ceanothus velutinus
Cercocarpus betuloides
Fremontia californica
Heteromeles arbutifolia
Pickeringia montant
Prunus ilicifolia
Quercus dumosa
Rhamnus californica
Rhamnus corcea
Trichostema lanatum
Yucca whipplei (southern part)
Pinus lambertiana
Pinus ponderosa
Quercus kellogii
Quercus vaccinifolia
30 Coastal Sagebrush Moderately dense vegetation of broadleaf evergreen shrubs, rarely more than 1.5 meters tall Eriogonum fasciculatum California buckwheat
Salvia apiana white sage
Salvia mellifera black sage
Artemisia californica
Encelia californica
Eriophyllum confertiflorum
Haplopappus squarrosus
Haplopappus venetus
Horkelia cuneata
Rhus integrifolia
Salvia leucophylla
Type Description Dominants Other Components
31 Mountain Mahogany-Oak Scrub Dense to open vegetation of deciduous or semideciduous shrubs Cercocarpus ledifolius mountain mahogany
Quercus gambelii Gamble oak
Acer grandidentatum
Amelanchier utahensis
Arctostaphylos spp.
Ceanothus velutinus
Cowania mexicana
Fallugia paradoxa
Pachystima myrsinites
Physocarupu malvaceus
Purshia trindentata
Quercus harvardii
Quercus turbinella
Quercus undulata
Rhus trilobata
Symphoricarpos spp.
32 Great Basin Sagebrush Fairly dense to open vegetation of low to medium tall shrubs Artemisia tridentata big sagebrush Agropyron smithii (northern part)
Artemisia nova
Atriplex confertifolia (southern part)
Astragalus spp. (southern part)
Chrysothamnus spp. (southern part)
Coleogyne spp. (southern part)
Ephedra spp.
Eriogonum spp.
Lupinus spp.
Phacelia spp.
Tetradynia spp.
33 Blackbrush Dense to open stands of broadleaf evergreen shurbs, frequently with an open understory of grass Coleogyne ramosissima blackbrush Artemisia tridentata
Ephedra spp.
Gutierrezia sarothrae
Haplopappus linearifolius
Hilaria jamesii
Type Description Dominants Other Components
34 Saltbrush-Greasewood Open stands of low shrubs and dwarf shrubs Atriplex confertifolia shadscale
Sarcobatus vermiculatus greasewood
Allenrolifea occidentalis
Artemisia spinescens
Atriplex spp.
Distichlis spicatum
Eurotia lanata
Grayia spinosa
Kochia anericana
Lycium cooperi
Menodora spinescens (western part)
Suaeda torreyana
35 Creosote Open stands of low to medium tall shrubs and dwarf shrubs Larrea divaricata creosote bush Baccharis sergiloides
Encelia farinosa
Franseria dumosa
Lycium andersonii
Sphaeralcea ambigua
36 Creosote Bush-Bur Sage Open stands of shrubs and dwarf shrubs Franseria dumosa white bur sage
Larrea divaricata creosote bush
Acacia greggii
Cercidium floridum
Cercidium microphyllum
Dalea californica
Dalea spinosa
Encelia farinosa
Ferrocactus acanthodes
Fouquiera splendens
Franseria deltoidea
Hilaria rigida
Lycium brevipes
Olneya tesota
Opuntia echinocarpa
Opuntia ramosissima
Opuntia wrightiana
Prosopis juliflora var. velutina
Type Description Dominants Other Components
37 Palo Verde-Cactus Shrub Open to dense vegetation of shrubs and low trees, often with many succulants Cercidium microphyllum Palo verde
Opuntia spp. prickly pear
Acacia constricta
Acacia greggii
Calliandra eriophyllua
Celtis pallida
Cercidium floridum
Cereus giganteus
Condalia lycioides
Condalia spathulata
Echinocereus engelmannii
Encelia farinosa
Ephedra trifurca
Ferocactus wislizenii
Fouquiera splendens
Franseria deltoidea
Franseria fomosa
Janusia gracilis
Jatrophya cardiophylla
Larrea divaricata
Lycium spp.
Olneya tesota
Opuntia engelmannii
Opuntia fulgida
Opuntia spinosior
Opuntia versicolor
Prosopis juliflora var. velutina
Simmondsia chinensis
38 Ceniza Shrub Open to dense stands of broadleaf deciduous and evergreen shrubs with a patchy synusia of grass Larrea divaricata creosote bush
Leucophyllum frutescens ceniza
Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa mesquite
Acacia spp.
Bouteloua spp.
Cercidium macrum
Condalia spp.
Dasylirion leiophyllum
Hilaria mutica
Opuntia spp.
Scleropogon brevifloius
39 Desert Vegetation largely absent
Type Description Dominants Other Components
40 Fescue-Oatgrass Dense, medium tall meadow-like grassland Carex tumulicola sedge
Danthonia californica oatgrass
Deschampsia holciformis hairgrass
Festuca idahoensis Idaho fescue
Agrostis hallii
Brodiaea pulchella
Calamagrostis nutakensis
Calochortus luteus
Chrysopsis bolanderi
Grindelia hirsutula Iris douglasiana
Lupinus formosus
Lupinus variicolor
Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens
Ranunculus californicus
Sanicola acrtopoides
Sisyrinchium ellum
Stipa lepida
41 California Steppe Dense to medium dense, low to medium tall grassland Stipa cernus needlegrass
Stipa pulchra speargrass
Aristida divaricata
Avena spp. (annual species only)
Bromus (annual species only)
Elymus glaucus
Elymus triticoides
Eschscholtzia californica
Festuca (annual species only)
Gilia spp.
Lupinus bicolor
Lupinus luteolus
Melica spp.
Orthocarpus spp.
Plagiogothrys nothofulvus
Poa scabrella
Sisyrinchium bellum
Stipa coronata (southern part)
Stipa lepida
42 Tule Marshes Tall graminoid vegetation Scirpus acutus common tule
Scirpus californicus California bulrush
Scirpus olneyi Olneyi bulrush
Scirpus validus tule
Typha domingensis cattail
Typha latifolia soft flag, cattail
Carex senta
Heleocharis palustris
Typha angustifolia
Type Description Dominants Other Components
43 Fescue-Wheatgrass Dense, low to medium tall grassland Agropyron spicatum bluebunch wheatgrass
Festuca idahoensis Idaho fescue
Achille millefolium var. lanulosa
Artemisia tripartita
Cllinsia parviflora
Hieracium albertinum
Lupinus sericeus
Potentilla balschkeana
Rosa nutkana
Rosa woodsii
Symphoricarpos albus
44 Wheatgrass-Bluegrass Dense, low to medium tall grassland Agropyron spicatum bluebunch wheatgrass
Festuca idahoensis Idaho fescue
Poa secunda sandberg bluegrass
Achille millefolium var. lanulosa
Astragalus spp.
Chrysothamnus nauseosus
Draba verna
Festuca pacifica
Lithophragma bulbifera
Lupinus sericeus
Plantago purshii
Stellaria nitens
45 Alpine Meadows and Barren Low to medium tall grassland with few woody plants Argostis spp. bentgrass
Carex spp. sedges
Deschampsia caespitosa hairgrass
Festuca viridula fescue
Luzula spicata woodrush
Phleum alpinum mountain timothy
Poa spp. bluegrass
Trisetum spicatum spike trisetum
AchiIlea spp.
Atennaria spp.
Aquilegia spp.
Arenaria spp.
Castilleja spp.
Draba spp.
Erigeron compositus
Oxyria digyna
Pentstemon fruticosus
Phacelia spp.
Phlox caespitosa
Polemonium spp.
Polygonum spp.
Potentilla diversifolia
Salix nivalis
Salix spp.
Saxifraga spp.
Selaginella spp.
Sibbaldia procumbens
Sieversia turbinata
Solidago spp.
Type Description Dominants Other Components
46 Fescue-Mountain Muhly Prairie Dense, low to medium tall grassland Festuca spp. Muhlenbergia spp.  
47 Grama-Galleta Steppe Low to medium tall grassland with few woody plants Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Hilaria jamesii galleta
Andropogon hallii
Andropogon scoparius
Artemisis tridentata
Astragalus spp.
Atriplex canescens
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua hirsuta
Ephedra viridis
Opuntia whipplei
Oryzopsis hymenoides
Tetradymia spp.
Yucca glauca
48 Grama-Tobosa Prairie Open grassland of rather low growth with scattered succlents, etc. Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Hilaria mutica tobosa
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua eriopoda
Bouteloua hirsuta
Gutierrezia spp.
Muhlenbergia spp.
Opuntia imbricata
Tridens pilosus
Yucca spp.
Type Description Dominants Other Components
49 Sagebrush Steppe Dense to open grassland with dense to open shrub synusia Agropyron spicatum bluebunch wheatgrass
Artemisia tridentata big sagebrush
Artemisia arbuscula (western part)B Artemisia nova (eastern part)
Balsamorrhiza sagittata
Festuca idahoensis
Lithospermum ruderale
Lupinus sericeus
Oryzopsis hymenoides
Phlox spp.
Poa nevadensis
Poa secunda
Purshia tridentata
Sitanion spp.
50 Wheatgrass-Needlegrass Shrubsteppe Open grasslands, sometimes fairly dense, with scattered dwarf shrubs Agropyron smithii western wheatgrass
Artemisia tridentata big sagebrush
Poa arida plains bluegrass
Stipa comata needle-and-thread grass
Agropyron spicatum
Artemisia cana
Artemisia frigida
Atriplex canescens
Atriplex confertifolia
Carex filifolia
Curotia lanata
Koeleria cristata
Sarcobatus vermiculatus
51 Galleta-Three Awn Shrubsteppe Open grassland with low shrubs Aristida longiseta three awn
Artemisia filifolia sandsage
Ephedra viridis Mormon tea
Hilaria jamesii galleta
Aster cichoriaceus
Berberis fremontii
Bouteloua gracilis
Chrysopsis villosa
Chrysothamnus nauseosus
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus
Ephedra torreyana
Euploca convolvulacea
Franseria acanthicarpa
Helianthys anomalus
Mentzelia pumila
Muhlenbergia pungens
Monroa squarrosa
Oenothera albicaulis
Oryzopsis hymenoides
Poliomintha incana
Quercus undulata
Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Stephanomeria pauciflora
Type Description Dominants Other Components
52 Grama-Tobosa Shrubsteppe Short grasses with a shrub synusia varying from very open to dense Bouteloua eriopoda black grama
Hilaria mutica tobosa
Larrea divaricata creosote bush
Acacia constricta
Andropogon barbinodis
Aristida divaricata
Aristida glabrata
Aristida hamulosa
Aristida longiseta
Astragalus spp.
Baileya multiradiata
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua gracilis
Bouteloua spp.
Gutierrezia sarothrae
Hilaria belangeri
Hilaria jamesii
Mentzelia spp.
Muhlengergia porteri
Opuntia spp.
Prosopis juliflora var. torreyana
Sphaeralcea spp.
Sporobolus airoides
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Sporobolus flexuosus
Yucca baccata
Yucca elata
Zinnia grandiflora
Zinnia pumila
53 Trans-Pecos Shrub Savanna Shrubs and dwarf shrubs, dense to scattered, with short grass Flourensis cernua tarbush
Larrea divaricata creosote bush
Acacia constricta
Acacia greggii
Agave lechuguilla
Aristida spp.
Bouteloua breviseta
Bouteloua trifida
Dasylirion leiophyllum
Fouquiera splendens
Hilaria mutica
Muhlenbergia porteri
Muhlenbergia spp.
Opuntia spp.
Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa
Scleropogon brevifolius
Yucca spp.
54 Mesquite-Acacia Oak Savanna Dense to open grassland with broadleaf deciduous low trees and shrubs scattered singly or in groves Acacia rigidula blackgrush acacia
Andropogon littoralis seacoast bluestem
Prosopsis juliflora var. glandulosa Mesquite
Setaria macrostachya plains bristle grass
Acacia berlandieri
Acacia spp.
Andropogon saccharoides
Andropogon scoparius (eastern part)
Aristida spp.
Bouteloua filiformis (western part)
Bouteloua hirsuta
Buchloe dactyloides
Cenchrus myosuroides
Chloris spp.
Condalia spp.
Heteropogon contortus
Hilaria belangeri
Opuntia spp.
Pappophorum bicolor
Paspalum spp.
Sorghastrum nutans
Quercus virginiana
Trichloris spp.
Type Description Dominants Other Components
55 Mesquite-Live Oak Savanna Rather open medium tall grass with low to medium tall broadleaf evergreen trees and low broadleaf deciduous trees and shrubs, scattered singly or in groves Andropogon littoralis seacoast bluestem
Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa mesquite
Quercus virginiana var. maritima sand live oak
Aristida roemeriana
Heteropogon contortus
Panicum virgatum
Paspalum spp.
Sorghastrum nutans
Trachypogon secundus
56 Foothills Prairie Open to fairly dense grassland of usually rather short grasses Agropyron spicatum bluebunch wheatgrass
Festuca idahoensis Idaho fescue
Festuca scabrella rough fescue
Stipa comata needle-and-thread grass
Achillea millefolium
Agropyron smithii
Artemisia frigida
Bouteloua gracilis
Carex filifolia
Eriogonum spp.
Koeleria cristata
Pentstemon spp.
Poasecunda
57 Grama-Needlegrass-Wheatgrass Rather short, open to fairly dense grassland Agropyron smithii western wheatgrass
Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Stipa comata needle-and-thread grass
Agropyron spicatum
Andropogon scoparius
Artemisia frigida
Carex filifolia
Chrysopsis villosa
Gutierrezia sarothrae
Koeleria cristata
Liatris punctata
Muhlenbergia cuspidata
Poa secunda
Stipa viridula
Type Description Dominants Other Components
58 Grama-Buffalo Grass Fairly dense grassland of short grass with somewhat taller grasses in the eastern sections Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Buchloe dactyloides buffalo grass
Agropyron smithii
Aristida purpurea
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua hirsuta
Gaura coccinea
Grindelia squarrosa
Haplopappus spinulosus
Lycurus phleoides
Muhlenbergia torreyi
Opuntia spp. (southern part)
Plantago purshii
Psoralea tenuiflora
Ratibida columinifera
Senecio spp.
Sitanion hystrix
Sphaeralcea coccinea
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Yucca glauca
Zinnia grandiflora
59 Wheatgrass-Needlegrass Moderately dense, short or medium tall grassland Agropyron smithii western wheatgrassB Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Stipa comata needle-and-thread grass
Stipa viridula green needlegrass (not in CO)
Agropyron trachycaulum
Antennaria spp.
Artemisia frigida
Carex spp.
Koeleria cristata Mertensia spp.
Oryzopsis hymenoides
Pentstemon spp.
Plains only:
Andropogon scoparius
Artemisia dranuncula
Artemisia ludoviciana
Aster ericoides
Echinacea angustifolia
Liatris punctata
Psoralea argophylla
Solidage spp.
Stipa spartea
Colorado only:
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus
Festuca arizonica
Muhlenbergia montana
Tetradymia canescens
60 Wheatgrass-Bluestem-Needlegrass Dense, medium tall to tall grassland Agropyron smithii western wheatgrass
Agropyron gerardi big bluestem
Stipa spartea needlegrass
Agropyron trachycaulum
Andropogon scoparius
Artemisia frigida
A. ludoviciana
Aster ericoides
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua gracilis
Echinacea angustifolia
Koeleria cristata
Liatris punctata
Psoralea argophylla
Rosa arkansana
Solidago missouriensis
Solidago mollis
Stipa comata
Stipa viridula
Type Description Dominants Other Components
61 Wheatgrass-Grama-Buffalo Grass Short to medium tall grasses Agropyron smithii western wheatgrass
Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Buchloe dactyloides buffalo grass
 
62 Bluestem-Grama Prairie Dense, medium tall grassland with many forbs Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Bouteloua curtipendula side-oats grama
Bouteloua gracilis blue grama
Agropyron smithii
Ambrosia stilostachya
Amorpha canescens
Andropogon gerardi
Buchloe dactyloides
Clematis fremontii
Dalea enneandra
Echinacea angustifolia
Erysimum asperum
Hedeoma hispida
Liatris punctata
Oenothera serrulata
Panicum virgatum
Paronychia jamesii
Psoralea tenuifolia
Scutellaria resinosa
Sorghastrum nutans
Sporobolus asper
Stenosiphon linifolius
63 Sandsage-Bluestem Prairie Medium tall, medium dense grassland with strong element of dwarf shrubs Andropogon hallii sand bluestem
Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Artemisia filifolia sandsage
Bouteloua hirsuta hairy grama
Bouteloua gracilis
Buchloe dactyloides
Calamovilfa longifolia
Eragrostis trichodes
Helianthus petiolaris
Hordeum jubatum
Panicum virgatum
Redfieldia flexuosa
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Stipa comata
Yucca glauca
Type Description Dominants Other Components
64 Shinnery Midgrass prairie with open to dense broadleaf deciduous shrubs and occasional needleleaf evergreen low trees or shrubs Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Quercus mohriana shin oak
Acacia spp.
Andropogon hallii
Aristida spp.
Artemisia filifolia
Bouteloua gracilis
Bouteloua hirsuta
Buchloe dactyloides
Celtis reticulata
Cenchrus spp.
Eriogonum annum juniperus pinchotii
Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa
Prunus angustifolia
Quercus havardii
Rhus aromatica var. pilosissima
Rhus trilobata
Sorghastrum nutans
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Yucca glauca
65 Northern Cordgrass Prairie Usually dense, medium tall grassland Distichlis spicata seashore saltgrass
Spartina alterniflora smooth cordgrass
Spartina patens saltmeadow cordgrass
Gerardina maritima juncus gerardi
Limonium carolinianum
Plantago decipiens
Salcornia spp.
Triclochin maritima
66 Bluestem Prairie Dense vegetation of tall grasses and many forbs Andropogon gerardi big bluestem
Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Panicum virgatum switchgrass
Sorghastrum nutans Indian grass
Amorpha canescens
Antennaria neglecta
Aster ericoides
Aster laevis
Baptisia leucantha
Baptisia leucophaea
Bouteloua curtipendula
Erigeron strigosus
Galium tinctorum
Helianthus grosseserratus
Koeleria cristata
Liatris aspera
Liatris punctata
Liatris scarriosa
Panicum leibergii
Panicum scribnerianum
Phlox pilosa
Psoralea argophylla
Psoralea floribunda
Ratibida columnifera
Ratibida pinnata
Rosa arkansana
Silphium laciniatum
Solidago altissima
Solidago missouriensis
Solidago rigida
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern part)
Stipa spartea (northern part)
Type Description Dominants Other Components
67 Sandhills Prairie Medium dense tc open grassland, tall to medium tall Andropogon gerardi big bluestem
Andropogon hallii sand bluestem
Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Calamovilfa longifolia sandreed
Stipa comata needle-and-thread grass
Artemisia canadensis
Asclepias arenaria
Carex heliophila
Eragrostis trichodes
Erigeron spp.
Gilia longifolia
Oryzopsis hymenoides
Panicum virgatum
Petalostemum villosum
Sporobolus cryptandrus
68 Blackland Prairie Medium tall, rather dense grassland Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Stipa leucotricha Texas needlegrass
Andropogon gerardi
Andropogon saccharoides
Aristida purpurea
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua hirsuta
Bouteloua rigidiseta
Buchloe dactyloides
Panicum virgatum
Sorghastrum nutans
Sporobolus asper
69 Bluestem-Sacahuista Prairie Medium tall, rather dense grassland    
Type Description Dominants Other Components
70 Southern Cordgrass Prairie Medium tall to very tall grassland, often very dense Spartina alterniflora smooth cordgrass Carex spp.
Distichlis spicata juncus effusus
Juncus roemerianus
Mariscus jamaicensis
Panicum hemitomon
Panicum repens
Panicum virgatum
Phragmites communis
Sagittaria spp.
Scirpus americanus
Scirpus californicus
Scirpus olneyi
Scirpus validus
Spartina cynosuroides
Spartina patens
Spartina spartinae
Typha domingensis
Zizaniopsis miliacea
71 Palmetto Prairie Dense, medium tall grasses with scattered palms and shrubs Aristida stricta wiregrass
Serenoa repens saw palmetto
Andropogon spp.
Aristida spiciformis
Axonopus compressus
Axonopus furcatus
Lyonia fruticosa
Lyonia mitida
Paspalum distichum
Sabal palmetto
Vaccinium myrsinites
72 Oak Savanna Tall grass prairie with broadleaf deciduous trees scattered singly or in groves Andropogon gerardi big bluestem
Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Quercus macrocarpa bur oak
Amphicarpa bracteataB Calamovilfa longifolia (in ND)
Carya ovata
Comandra richardsiana
Euphorbia corollata
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (in ND)
Monadra fistulosa Panicum leibergii
Quercus alba
Quercus ellipsoidalis
Quercus velutina
Rosa spp.
Sorghastrum nutans
Sporobolus heterolepis
Stipa spartea
Type Description Dominants Other Components
73 Mosaic of Oak-Hickory Forest (91) in Bluestem Prairie (66) A true mosaic (not a transition zone) of the two types, containing dominants and other components characteristic of those two types. See the composition descriptions of 66 and 91 for lists of species present in 73.
74 Cedar Glades Low to medium tall open grassland with scattered needleleaf evergreen shrubs and groves of low to medium tall broadleaf deciduous trees Celtis laevigata hackberry (eastern part)
Juniperus virginiana red cedar
Quercus stellata post oak (western part)
Sporobolus neglectus poverty grass (western part)
Sporobolus vaginiflorus poverty grass (eastern part)
Ulmus alata winged elm (eastern part)
Andropogon gerardi
Andropogon scoparius
Arenaria patula
Aristida longispica (eastern part)
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bumelia lanuginosa
Carya glabra
Celtis tenuifolia
Cercis canadensis
Cheilanthes lanosa
Croton monanthogynus
Forestiera langustrina (eastern part)
Leavenworthia spp.
Palafoxia callosa
Petalostemum purpureum
Pleurochaete squarrosa (eastern part)
Psoralea spp.
Quercus marilandica
Quercus muhlenbergii
Quercus velutina
Rhus aromatica
Sedum pulchellum
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
75 Cross Timbers Medium tall grass with broadleaf deciduous trees scattered singly or in extensive groves Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Quercus marilandica blackjack oak
Andropogon gerardi
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua hirsuta
Carya texana
Celtis spp.
Elymus canadensis
Eragostis spectabilis
Eragostis trichodes
Panicum scribnerianum
Panicum virgatum
Sorghastrum nutans
Sporobolus asper
Stipa leucotricha
Ulmus crassifolia (southern part)
Type Description Dominants Other Components
76 Mesquite-Buffalo Grass Short grass with scattered low broadleaf deciduous trees and shrubs and low needleleaf evergreen shrubs Buchloe dactyloides buffalo grass
Prosopsis juliflora var. glandulosa Mesquite (southern part)
Acacia greggii
Aristida purpurea
A. roemeriana
Bouteloua gracilis
Bouteloua hirsuta
Bouteloua trifida
Condalia obovata
Juniperus pinchotii
Juniperus virginiana (northeastern part)
Quercus virginiana var. fusiformis
Schedonnardus paniculatus
Yucca glauca
77 Juniper-Oak Savanna Savanna with a dense to very open synusia of broadleaf deciduous and evergreen low trees and shrubs and needleleaf evergreen low trees and shrubs Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Juniperus ashei ash juniper
Quercus virginiana live oak
Andropogon gerardi (eastern part)
Aristida glauca
Aristida intermedia
Aristida purpurea
Bouteloua curtipendula (western part)
Bouteloua hirsuta Buchloe dactyloides
Cercis canadensis var. texensis (eastern part)
Fraxinus texensis
Hilaria belangeri (western part)
Leptochloa dubia (western part)
Panicum obtusum (western part)
Quercus durandii var. breviloba
Quercus shumardii var. texana
Sorghastrum nutans (eastern part)
Sporobolus spp.
Tridens pilosus
78 Mesquite-Oak Savanna Low to medium tall grass with broadleaf deciduous shrubs and low trees scattered openly to densely Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Prosopsis juliflora var. glandulosa Mesquite
Quercus spp. oak
Aloysia ligustrina
Andropogon barbinodis
Aristida purpurea
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua hirsuta
Bouteloua rigidiseta
Brayodendron texanum
Buchloe dactyloides
Juniperus ashei
Quercus marilandica
Quercus stellata
Ulmus crassifolia
Type Description Dominants Other Components
79 Fayette Prairie Medium tall, rather densegrassland with scattered open groves of broadleaf deciduous trees Andropogon scoparius little bluestem
Buchloe dactyloides buffalo grass
Andropogon saccgaroides
Andropogon ternarius
Aristida purpurea
Andropogon roemeriana
Paspalum dilatatum
Paspalum plicatulum
Stipa leucotricha
Groves of trees are oak-hickory (91)
80 Blackbelt Tall or medium tall broadleaf deciduous forest with concentrations of low needleleaf evergreen trees and patches of bluestem prairie (66) Juniperus virginiana red cedar
Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum
Quercus stellata post oak
Carya spp.
Fraxinum americana
Liriodendron tuliperfera
Nyssa sylvatica
Quercus alba
Quercus falcata
Quercus muhlenbergii
Ulmus alata
81 Live Oak-Sea Oats Irregular, varying from open grasslands to dense shrub and groves of low broadleaf evergreen trees Quercus virginiana var. maritima sand live oak
Uniola paniculata sea oats
Baccharis halimifolia
Cenchrus tribuloides
Croton punctatus
Ilex vomitoria
Iva frutescens juncus roemerianus
Myrica cerifera
Myrica pensylvanica
Opuntia spp.
Panicum amarum
Sabal palmetto
Salsola kali
Serenoa repens
Spartina alterniflora
Spartina patens
Yucca aloifolia
Type Description Dominants Other Components
82 Cypress Savanna Open forest to savanna with needleleaf deciduous trees and some broadleaf evergreen or deciduous trees and shrubs; trees and shrubs also occur in groves surrounded by open grassland Aristida affinia three awn
Aristida patula three awn
Taxodium distichum bald cypress
Acer rubrum var. drummondii
Annona glabra
Blechnum serrulatum
Cyperus haspan
Hypericum fasciculatum
Ilex cassine
Leersia hexandra
Magnolia virginiana
Mariscus jamaicensis
Myrica cerifera
Persea borbonia
Rhynchospora filifolia
Salix caroliniana
Saururus cernuus
Spartina bakeri
Stillingia aquatica
Taxodium distichum var. nutans
Tillandsia utriculata
Utricularia juncea
83 Everglades








Grassland





















Bayheads
Medium tall to tall grassland with scattered groves (bayheads) of low to medium tall broadleaf evergreen trees and shrubs








Mariscus jamaicensis sawgrass





















Magnolia virginiana sweet bay
Persea borbonia red bay









Aristida affinia
Aristida patula
Boehmeria cylindrica
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Eleocharis spp.
Eragrostis elliottii
Erigeron quercifolius
Myrica cerifera
Osmunda regalis
Panicum hemitomon
Peltandra virginica
Polygonum acre
Pontederia spp.
Rhynchospora spp.
Sagittaria lancifolia
Salix caroliniana
Sambucus simpsonii
Scirpus spp.
Spartina bakeri
Typha angustifolia
84 Great Lakes Spruce-Fir Forest Dense needleleaf evergreen forests, sometimes low but usually medium tall, with modest admixtures of broadleaf deciduous trees Abies balsamea balsam fir
Picea glauca white spruce
Acer rubrum
Acer spicatum
Betula papyrifera
Pinus resinosa
Pinus strobus
Populus tremuloides
Sorbus americana
Thuja occidentalis
Type Description Dominants Other Components
85 Conifer Bog Dense to open, low to medium tall forests of needleleaf evergreen or deciduous trees, often with dense undergrowth Larix laricina larch
Picea mariana black spruce
Thuja occidentalis arbor vitae/white cedar
Acer rubrum
Carex spp.
Chamaedaphne caliculata Ilex verticillata
Kalmia polifolia
Ledum groenlandicum
Nemopanthus mucronatua
Sphagnum spp.
86 Great Lakes Pine Forest Low to tall needleleaf evergreen forest, often with a synusia of broadleaf deciduous trees and shrubs Pinus bankaiana Jack pine
Pinus resinosa red pine
Pinus strobus white pine
Kalmis angustifolia
Populus grandidentata
Populus tremuloides
Quercus alba (southern part)
Quercus coccinea
Quercus ellipsoidalis
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
87 Northeastern Spruce-Fir Forest Dense needleleaf evergreen forest, low to medium tall, with stunted growth in high altitudes, with a modest mixture of broadleaf deciduous trees Abies balsamea balsam fir
Picea rubens red spruce
Acer rubrum
Betula papyrifera
Betula populifolia
Populus grandidentata
Populus tremuloides
Sorbus americana
Type Description Dominants Other Components
88 Southeastern Spruce-Fir Forest Dense needleleaf evergreen low to medium tall forest, often with shrubby undergrowth Abies fraseri Fraser fir
Picea rubens red spruce
Acer spicatum
Rhododendron catawbiense
Rhubus canadensis
Sorbus americana
89 Northern Floodplain Forest Low to tall broadleaf deciduous forest, open to dense, often with lianas Populus deltoides cottonwood
Salix nigra black willow
Ulmus americana American elm
Acer negundo
Acer rubrum
Acer saccharinum
Betula nigra (eastern part)
Celastrus scandens
Celtis occidentalis
Clematis virginiana
Fraxinus americana
Fraxinu pennsylvanica
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra (southern part)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis (southern part)
Populus sargentii
Rhus radicans
Salix amygdaloides
Salix interior
Smila hispida
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Ulmus rubra
90 Maple-Basswood Forest Medium tall, broadleaf deciduous forest Acer saccharum sugar maple
TiIia americana basswood
Acer negundo
Carya cordiformis
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Ostrya virginiana
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Ulmus americana
Ulmus rubra
Type Description Dominants Other Components
91 Oak-Hickory Forest Medium to tall broadleaf deciduous forest Carya cordiformis bitternut hickory
Carya ovata shagbark hickory
Quercus alba white oak
Quercus rubra northern red oak
Quercus velutina black oak
Carya glabra
Carya texana (southern part)
Carya tomentosa (southern part)
Fraxinus americana
Juglans nigra
Prunus serotina
Quercus ellipsoidalis (northern part)
Quercus falcata (southern part)
Quercus imbricaria (northern part)
Quercus lyrata (southern part)
Quercus marilandica (southern part)
Quercus muhlenbergii
Quercus shumardii (southern part)
Quercus stellata (southern part)
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
92 Ponderosa Shrub Forest Moderately dense to open forests of tall needleleaf evergreen trees with shrubs and some grasses Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Agropyron spicatum
Arctostaphylos patula
Arctostaphylos parryans var. pinetorum
Calamagrostis rubescens
Ceanothus velutinus
Cercocarpus ledifolius
Festuca idahoensis
Holodiscus discolor
Physocarpus capitatus
Pseudotusga menziesii
Purshia tridentata
Symphoricarpos spp.
93 Beech-Maple Forest Tal I broadleaf deciduous forest Acer saccharum sugar maple
Fagus grandifolia beech
Fraxinus pennsylvanica white ash
Ulmus americana American elm
Aesculus glabra (southern part)
Carya ovata
Fraxinus americana
Juglans nigra
Liriodendron tulipifera
Prunus serotina
Quercus alba
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus rubra
Type Description Dominants Other Components
94 Mixed Mesophytic Forest TalI broadleaf deciduous forest Acer saccharum sugar maple
Aesculus octandra buckeye
Fagus grandifolia beech
Liriodendron tulipifera tulip poplar
Quercus alba white oak
Quercus rubra northern red oak
Tilia heterophylla basswood
Acer nigrum
Acer pensylvanicum
Acer rubrum
Amelanchier arborea
Betula allegheniensis
Betula lenta
Carpinus caroliniana
Cornus florida
Fraxinus americana
Halesia carolina var. monticola (southern part)
Ilex opaca
Juglans nigra
Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia fraseri
Magnolia macrophylla (southern part)
Magnolia tripetala
Nyssa sylvatica
Ostrya virginiana
Oxydendrum arboreum
Prunus serotina
Tilia americana
Tsuga canadensis (northern part)
95 Appalachian Oak Forest Tall broadleaf deciduous forest Quercus alba white oak
Quercus rubra northern red oak
Acer rubrum
Acer saccharum
Betula lenta
Carpinus caroliniana
Carya cordiformis
Carya glabra
Carya tomentosa
Castanea dentata
Fagus grandifolia
Liriodendron tulipifera
Pinus strobus (northern part)
Quercus coccinea
Quercus ilicifolia
Quercus muhlenbergii
Quercus prinus
Quercus velutina
Tsuga canadensis (northern part)
96 Mangrove Usually dense growth of broadleaf evergreen shrubs and low to medium tall trees with stilt roots, with patches of tropical forest, esp. on the Florida Keys Avicennia nitida black mangrove
Rhizophora mangle red mangrove
Batis maritima
Conocarpus erectus
Laguncularia racemosa
Salicornia perennis
Patches of tropical forest include:
Bursera simaruba
Coccoloba diversifolia
Dipholis salicifolia
Drypetes diversifolia
Exothea paniculata
Ficus aurea
Lysiloma bahamensis
Nectandra coriacea
Piscidia piscipula
Sapindus saponaria
Sideroxylon foetidissima
Simarouba glauca
Swietenia mahogoni
Type Description Dominants Other Components
97 Northern Hardwoods Tall, broadleaf deciduous forest with a mixture of needleleaf evergreen trees Acer saccharum sugar maple
Betula allegheniensis yellow birch
Fagus grandifolia beech
Tsuga canadensis hemlock
Acer pensylvanicum
Acer rubrum
Acer spicatum
Fraxinus americana
Kalmia latifolia
Pinus strobus
Prunus serotina
Taxus canadensis
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
98 Northern Hardwoods-Fir Forest Dense medium tall forests of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees Abies balsamea balsam fir
Acer saccharum sugar maple
Betula papyrifera paper birch
Tsuga canadensis hemlock
Acer rubrum
Acer spicatum
Betula allegheniensis
Fagus grandifolia
Picea glauca
Pinus resinosa
Pinus strobus
Tilia americana
99 Northern Hardwoods-Spruce Forest Tall, dense forest of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees Acer saccharum sugar maple
Betula allegheniensis yellow birch
Fagus grandifolia beech
Picea rubens red spruce
Tsuga canadensis hemlock
Abies balsamea
Acer rubrum
Acer spicatum
Betula papyrifera
Pinus strobus
Pinus resinosa
Tillia americana
Viburmum alnifolium
Type Description Dominants Other Components
100 Northeastern Oak-Pine Forest Medium tall forest of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees; in places forest is low, even shrubby Pinus rigida pitch pine
Quercus coccinea scarlet oak
Quercus velutina black oak
Gaylussacia baccata
Kalmia angustifolia
Kalmia latifolia
Pinus echinata
Quercus marilandica
Quercus prinus
Quercus stellata
101 Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest Medium tall to tall forest of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees Carya spp. hickory
Pinus echinata shortleaf pine
Pinus taeda loblolly pine
Quercus alba white oak
Quercus stellata post oak
Carya cordiformis
Carya glabra
Carya ovata
Carya tomentosa
Cornus florida
Diospyros virginiana
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tuliperfera
Nyssa sylvatica
Oxydendrum arboreum
Persea borbonia (lower elevations)
Persea virginiana
Quercus coccinea
Quercus falcata
Quercus marilandica
Quercus prinus
Quercus rubra
Quercus shumardii
Quercus velutina
102 Southern Mixed Forest Tall forest of broadleaf deciduous and evergreen and needleleaf trees Fagus grandifolia beech (not in central FL)
Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum
Magnolia grandiflora southern magnolia
Pinus elliotti slash pine
Pinus taeda loblolly pine
Quercus alba white oak
Quercus laurifolia laurel oak
Acer barbatum
Carpinus caroliniana (not in central FL)
Carya clabra (northern part)
Carya tomentosa (northern part)
Cornus florida Ilex glabra Ilex opaca
Liriodentron tuliperifera (not in central FL)
Myric cerifera
Ostrya virginiana (not in central FL)
Persea borbonia
Pinus echinata (northern part)
Pinus palustris
Quercus falcata
Quercus incana
Quercus laevis
Quercus marilandica
Quercus stellata
Quercus virginiana (FL and coastal regions)
Sabal palmetto (eastern part)
Serenoa repens
Type Description Dominants Other Components
103 Southern floodplain forest Dense, medium tall to tall forest of broadleaf deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs and needleleaf deciduous trees Nyssa aquatica tupelo
Quercus spp. oak
Taxodium distichum bald cypress
Acer rubrum var. drummondii
Ampelopsis arborea
Berchemia scandens
Campsis radicans
Carya aquatica
Carya illinoensis
Celtis laevigata
Foresteria acuminata
Fraxinus caroliniana
Fraxinus profunda
Gleditsia aquatica
Ilex decidua
Liquidambar stryaciflua
Nyssa silvatica
Nyssa silvatica var. biflora
Persea borbonia
Planera aquarica
Platanus occidetalis
Populus deltoides
Populus heterophylla
Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia
Quercus lyrata
Quercus michauxii
Quercus migra
Quercus shumardii
Salix nigra
Ulmus americana
Vitis spp.
104 Pocosin Low open forests of needleleaf evergreen trees and broadleaf evergreen low trees and shrubs and much moss Ilex glabra gall berry
Pinus serotina pond pine
Cyrilla racemiflora
Gordonia lasianthus
Magnolia virginiana
Myrica cerifera
Persea borbonia
Smilax laurifolia
Sphagnum spp.
Type Description Dominants Other Components
Type Description Dominants Other Components
105 Sand Pine Scrub Open woodland of low needleleaf evergreen trees and broadleaf deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs Pinus clausa sand pine
Quercus chapmanii Chapman oak
Quercus myrtifolia myrtle oak
Quercus virginiana var. maritima sand live oak
Bumelia tenax
Carya floridana
Ceratiola ericoides
Chrysopsis graminifolia
Cladonia pycnocladia
Garberia fruticosa
Lyonia ferruginea
Osmanthus americanus
Rhynchospora dodocandra
Serenoa repens
106 Subtropical Pine Forest Medium tall forest of needleleaf and broadleaf evergreen trees and shrubs Pinus elliottii var. densa South Florida slash pine Chiococca pinetorum
Coccothrinax argentata
Guettarda elliptica
Guettarda scabra
Metopium toxiferum
Myrica cericera
Tetrazygia bicolor
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Questions and feedback should be directed to Deirdre Remley (deirdre.remley@dot.gov, 202-366-0524).

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