Environmental Review Toolkit
Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

Best Practices Manual: Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction Study

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1 Huijser, M. P. , P. McGowen, J. Fuller, A. Hardy, A. Kociolek, A. P. Clevenger, D. Smith, and R. Ament. 2007.Wildlife-vehicle collision reduction study. Report to Congress. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC. (back)

2 Iuell, B. , G. J. Bekker, R. Cuperus, J. Dufek, G. Fry, C. Hicks, V. Hlavác, V. Keller, C. Rosell, T. Sangwine, N. Tørsløv, and B. le Maire Wandall,. 2003.COST 341.Habitat Fragmentation due to Transportation Infrastructure. Wildlife and traffic: a European handbook for identifying conflicts and designing solutions. KNNV Publishers, Utrecht, The Netherlands. (back)

3 Forman, R. T. T. , D. Sperling, J. Bissonette, A. Clevenger, C. Cutshall, V. Dale, L. Fahrig, R. France, C. Goldman, K. Heanue, J. Jones, F. Swanson, and T. Turrentine. Winter. 2003.Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press, Washington, DC. (back)

4 Clevenger, A. P. , M. P. Huijser and A. Hardy. In prep. Guidelines for designing and evaluating North American wildlife crossing systems. Final report. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. (back)

5 Huijser, M. P. , J. Fuller, M. E. Wagner, A. Hardy, and A. P. Clevenger. 2007.Animal-vehicle collision data collection: A synthesis of highway practice.NCHRP Synthesis 370.Project 20-5/Topic 37-12.Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. (back)

6 Smith, D. 1999.Identification and prioritization of ecological interface zones on State highways in Florida.Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation: 209-230.FL-ER-73-99.Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL. (back)

7 Geodata Services, Inc. 2005.Idaho Transportation Department-District 6, Highway/Wildlife Linkage GIS Layers. Final Report. (back)

8 Grist, R. R. , S. K. Williams and E. Finnen. 1999.Development of a Methodology for Determining Optimum Locations for Wildlife Crossings on State Highways Using a Geographic Information Systems Approach with Application to Key Deer on Big Pine Key, FL. Final report. Federal Highway Administration. (back)

9 Mietz, S. N. 1994.Linkage Zone Identification and Evaluation of Management Options for Grizzly Bears in the Evaro Hill Area. MSc. Thesis. University of Montana, Missoula, MT. (back)

10 Trocmé, M. , S. Cahill, J. G. de Vries, H. Farrall, L. Folkeson, G. Fry, C. Hicks and J. Peymen. 2003.Habitat Fragmentation due to Transportation Infrastructure. The European Review. COST action 341.Directorate-General for Research, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. (back)

11 Maurer, M. E. 1999.Development of a community-based, landscape-level terrestrial mitigation decision support system for transportation planners.Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation. 99-110.FL-ER-73-99.Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL. (back)

12 Neuman T. , M. Schwartz, L. Clark, and J. Bednar. 2002.A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions. NCHRP Report 480.(back)

13 American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2004.A Guideline for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design. ISBN 1-56051-259-8.(back)

14 Transtech Management Inc. , Oldham Historic Properties Inc. , and Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas Inc. 2004.Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions-A Guidebook for State DOTs. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 20-24(30) [Web document 69], October 2004.Available on the Internet at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_w69.pdf (last accessed May 21, 2007). (back)

15 American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2004.A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (Green Book) 5th edition. ISBN 1-56051-263-6.(back)

16 Clevenger, A. P. , and A. V. Kociolek. 2006.Highway Median Impacts on Wildlife Movement and Mortality. State of the Practice Survey and Gap Analysis. Final report. Research Report Number F/CA/MI-2006/09.Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. (back)

17 Clevenger, A. P. , B. Chruszcz, K. Gunson, and J. Wierzchowski. 2002.Roads and Wildlife in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks: Movements, Mortality and Mitigation. Final report to Parks Canada, Banff, Alberta, Canada. (back)

18 Van Manen, F. T. , M. D. Jones, J. L. Kindall, L. Thompson and B. K. Scheick. 2001.Determining the potential mitigation effects of wildlife passageways on black bears.Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation 2001: 435-446.(back)

19 Clevenger, A. P. , B. Chruszcz, K. Gunson, K. , and M. Brumfit. 2002.Highway Mitigation Monitoring: Three Sisters Parkway Interchange. Final Report, August 1999-July 2002.Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Canmore, Alberta, Canada. (back)

20 Huijser, M. P. , K. J. S. Paul, L. Oechsli, R. Ament, A. P. Clevenger and A. Ford. 2008.Wildlife-vehicle collision and crossing mitigation plan for Hwy 93S in Kootenay and Banff National Park and the roads in and around Radium Hot Springs. Report 4W1929 B, Western Transportation Institutea-Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. (back)

21 Dodd, N. L. , J. W. Gagnon, S. Boe, A. Manzo, and R. E. Schweinsburg. 2007.Evaluation of measures to minimize wildlife-vehicle collisions and maintain permeability across highways: State Route 260, Arizona. Final Project Report (2002-2006). Projects JPA 01-152 and JPA 04-024T. Submitted to Arizona Department of Transportation, Arizona Transportation Research Center, and the Federal Highway Administration. June 2007.(back)

22 Foster, M. L. , and S. R. Humphrey. 1995.Use of highway underpasses by Florida panthers and other wildlife.Wildlife Society Bulletin 23(1): 95-100.(back)

23 Marshik, J. , L. Renz, J. L. Sipes, D. Becker, and D. Paulson. 2001.Preserving spirit of place: U.S. Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation.Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation 2001: 244-256.(back)

24 Wagner, P. 2005.Improving mobility for wildlife and people: Transportation planning for habitat connectivity in Washington State.Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, p79.(back)

25 McKinney, T. and T. Smith. 2007.U.S. 93 bighorn sheep study: Distribution and trans-highway movements of desert bighorn sheep in northwestern Arizona. FHWA-AZ-07-576, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ. (back)

26 Mata, C. , I. Hervás, J. Herranz, F. Suárez, and J. E. Malo. 2005.complementary use by vertebrates of crossing structures along a fenced Spanish motorway.Biological Conservation 124, 397-405.(back)

27 Kruidering, A. M. , G. Veenbaas, R. Kleijberg, G. Koot, Y. Rosloot, and E. Van Jaarsveld. 2005.Leidraad faunavoorzieningen bij wegen. Rijkswaterstaat, Dienst Weg-en Waterbouwkunde, Delft, The Netherlands. (back)

28 Peterson, M. N. , R. R. Lopez, N. J. Silvy, C. B. Owen, P. A. Frank, and A. W. Braden. 2003.Evaluation of deer-exclusion grates in urban areas.Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4): 1198-1204.(back)

29 Bissonette, J. A. and M. Hammer. 2000.Effectiveness of earthen ramps in reducing big game highway mortality in Utah: Final report. Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Report Series 2000(1): 1-29.(back)

30 Huijser, M. P. , P. T. McGowen, W. Camel, A. Hardy, P. Wright, A. P. Clevenger, L. Salsman, and T. Wilson. 2006.Animal Vehicle Crash Mitigation Using Advanced Technology. Phase I: Review, Design and Implementation. SPR 3(076). FHWA-OR-TPF-07-01, Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. (back)

31 Harper-Lore, B. L. and M. Wilson (eds. ). 2000.Roadside Use of Native Plants. Island Press, Washington, DC. (back)

32 Lavsund, S. , and F. Sandegren. 1991.Moose vehicle relations in Sweden: A review.Alces 27: 118-126.(back)

33 Andreassen, H. P. , H. Gundersen, and T. Storaas. 2005.The effect of scent-marking, forest clearing, and supplemental feeding on moose-train collisions.Journal of Wildlife Management 69(3): 1125-1132.(back)

34 Jaren, V. , R. Andersen, M. Ulleberg, P. H. Pedersen, and B. Wiseth. 1991.Moose-train collisions: The effects of vegetation removal with a cost-benefit analysis.Alces 27: 93-99.(back)

35 Thomas, S. E. 1995.Moose-Vehicle Accidents on Alaska's Rural Highways. Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Central Region, Design and Construction Division, Alaska. (back)

36 Rea, R. V. 2003.Modifying roadside vegetation management practice to reduce vehicular collisions with moose (Alces alces).Wildlife Biology 9(2): 81-91.(back)

37 Rea, R. V. , and M. P. Gillingham. 2001.The impact of timing of brush management on the nutritional value of woody browse for moose (Alces alces).Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 710-719.(back)

38 Knapp, K. 2005.Crash reduction factors for deer vehicle crash countermeasures.Transportation Research Record 1908: 172-179.(back)

39 Doerr, M. L. , J. B. McAninch, and E. P. Wiggers. 2001.comparison of four methods to reduce white-tailed deer abundance in an urban community.Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(4): 1105-1113.(back)

40 Swihart, R. K. , H. P. Weeks Jr. , A. L. Easter-Pilcher, and A. J. DeNicola. 1998.Nutritional condition and fertility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from areas with contrasting histories of hunting.Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(10): 1932-1941.(back)

41 Porter, W. F. , H. B. Underwood, and J. L. Woodard. 2004.Movement behavior, dispersal, and the potential for localized management of deer in a suburban environment.Journal of Wildlife Management 68(2): 247-256.(back)

42 DeNicola, A. J. , K. C. VerCauteren, P. D. Curtis, and S. E. Hygnstrolm. 2000.Managing white-tailed deer in suburban environments: A technical guide. Cornell Cooperative Extension. Ithaca, NY, 52pp. (back)

43 Brown, J. 2006.Eco-logical: An ecosystem approach to developing infrastructure projects. Final report to U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration. FHWA-HEP-06-011.(back)

44 Boarman, W. I. and M. Sazaki. 1996.Highway mortality in desert tortoises and small vertebrates: Success of barrier fences and culverts.Proceedings of the Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality Seminar. 1996: 169-173.Environmental Management Office, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL. (back)

45 Boarman, W. I. , M. Sazaki, and W. B. Jennings. 1997.The effect of roads, barrier fences, and culverts on desert tortoise populations in California.Proceedings: Conservation, Restoration, and Management of Tortoises and Turtles-An International Conference. 1993: 54-58.New York Turtle and Tortoise Society, New York. (back)

46 Bard, A. M. , H. T. Smith, E. D. Egensteiner, R. Mulholland, T. V. Harber, G. W. Stewart, W. J. B. Miller and J. S. Weske. 2002.A simple structural method to reduce road-kills of royal terns at bridge sites.Wildlife Society Bulletin 30 (1): 603-605.(back)

47 Hauer, E. 1997.Observational Before-After Studies in Road Safety: Estimating the Effect of Highway and Traffic Engineering Measures on Road Safety. Pergamon Press. Oxford, United Kingdom. (back)

48 Hardy, A. , A. P. Clevenger, M. Huijser and G. Neale. 2003.An overview of methods and approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures: Emphasizing the science in applied science.Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, pp319-330.(back)

49 Leach, R. H. and W. D. Edge. 1994.Summer home range and habitat selection by white-tailed deer in the Swan Valley, Montana.Northwest Science 68 (1): 31-36.(back)

50 Mundinger, J. G. 1981.White-tailed deer reproductive biology in the Swan Valley, Montana.Journal of Wildlife Management 45 (1): 132-139.(back)

51 Mackie, R. J. , D. F. Pac, K. L. Hamlin and G. L. Dusek. 1998.Ecology and management of mule deer and white-tailed deer in Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wildlife Division, Helena, Montana, USA. (back)

52 Mysterud, A. , F. J. Pérez-Barbería and I. J. Gordon. 2001.The effect of season, sex and feeding style on home range area versus body mass scaling in temperate ruminants.Oecologia 127: 30-39.(back)

53 D'Eon, R. G. and R. Serrouya. 2005.Mule deer seasonal movements and multiscale resource selection using global positioning system radiotelemetry.Journal of Mammalogy 86 (4): 736-744.(back)

54 Anderson, D. P. , J. D. Forester, M. G. Turner, J. L. Frair, E. H. Merrill, D. Fortin, J. S. Mao and M. S. Boyce. 2005.Factors influencing female home range sizes in elk (Cervus elaphus) in North American landscapes.Landscape Ecology 20 (3): 257-271.(back)

55 Van Dyke, F. G. , W. C. Klein, and S. T. Stewart. 1998.Long-term range fidelity in Rocky Mountain elk.Journal of Wildlife Management 62 (3): 1020-1035.(back)

56 Singer, F. J. and J. L. Doherty. 1985.Movements and habitat use in an unhunted population of mountain goats Oreamnos americanus.Canadian Field Naturalist 99 (2): 205-217.(back)

57 Demarchi, R. A. , C. L. Hartwig, and D. A. Demarchi. 2000.Status of the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in British Columbia.Wildlife Society Bulletin B-99, 56 pp. (back)

58 Reynolds, T. D. 1984.Daily summer movements, activity patterns, and home range of pronghorn Antilocapra Americana.Northwest Science 58(4): 300-311.(back)

59 Clemente, F. , R. Valdez, J. L. Holechek, P. J. Zwank and M. Cardenas. 1995.Pronghorn home range relative to permanent water in southern New Mexico.Southwestern Naturalist 40(1): 38-41.(back)

60 Bayless, S. R. 1969.Winter food habits, range use, and home range of antelope in Montana.Journal of Wildlife Management 33(3): 538-551.(back)

61 Gehring, T. M. and R. K. Swihart. 2004.Home range and movements of long-tailed weasels in a landscape fragmented by agriculture.Journal of Mammalogy 85(1): 79-86.(back)

62 Poole, K. G. , A. D. Porter, and A. de Vries. 2004.Suitability of a young deciduous-dominated forest for American marten and the effects of forest removal.Canadian Journal of Zoology 82 (3): 423-435.(back)

63 Whitaker, J. O. 1997.National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American mammals. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. , New York, USA. (back)

64 Arthur, S. M. , B. William, J. R. Krohn and J. R. Gilbert. 1989.Home range characteristics of adult fishers.Journal of Wildlife Management 53(3): 674-679.(back)

65 Garant, Y. and M. Crete. 1997.Fisher, Martes pennanti, home range characteristics in a high density untrapped population in southern Quebec.Canadian Field-Naturalist. Vol. 111(3): 359-364.(back)

66 Goodrich, J. M. and S. W. Buskirk. 1998.Spacing and ecology of North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in a prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) complex.Journal of Mammalogy 79 (1): 171-179.(back)

67 Kinley, T. A. and N. J. Newhouse. 2008.Ecology and translocation-aided recovery of an endangered badger population.Journal of Wildlife Management 72 (1): 113-122.(back)

68 Banci, V. and A. S. Harestad. 1990.Home range and habitat use of wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Yukon, Canada.Holarctic Ecology 13 (3): 195-200.(back)

69 Whitman, J. S. , W. B. Ballard, and C. L. Gardner. 1986.Home range and habitat use by wolverines in southcentral Alaska.Journal of Wildlife Management 50 (3): 460-463.(back)

70 Lindstedt, S. L, B. J. Miller, and S. W. Buskirk. 1986.Home range, time, and body size in mammals.Ecology 67 (2): 413-418.(back)

71 Krebs, J. , E. C. Lofroth, and I. Parfitt. 2007.Multiscale habitat use by wolverines in British Columbia, Canada.Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 2180-2192.(back)

72 Knowles, P. R. 1985.Home range size and habitat selection of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in north-central Montana.Canadian Field-Naturalist 99 (1): 6-12.(back)

73 Litvaitis, J. A. , J. A. Sherburne, and J. A. Bissonette. 1986.Bobcat habitat use and home range size in relation to prey density.Journal of Wildlife Management 50 (1): 110-117.(back)

74 Brand, C. J. , L. B. Keith, and C. A. Fischer. 1976.Lynx responses to changing snowshoe hare densities in central Alberta.Journal of Wildlife Management 40 (3): 416-428.(back)

75 Squires, J. R. and T. Laurion. 2000.Lynx home range and movements in Montana and Wyoming: preliminary results. In: Ruggiero et al. , eds. Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States. pp 337-349.In: Ruggiero, L. F. , K. B. Aubry, S. W. Buskirk, G. M. Koehler, C. J. Krebs, K. S. McKelvey and J. R. Squires. Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-30WWW. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. (back)

76 Apps, C. D. 2000.Space-use, diet, demographics, and topographic associations of lynx in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: a study. pp 351-371.In: Ruggiero, L. F. , K. B. Aubry, S. W. Buskirk, G. M. Koehler, C. J. Krebs, K. S. McKelvey and J. R. Squires. Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-30WWW. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. (back)

77 Spreadbury, B. R, K. Musil, J. Musil, C. Kaisner, and J. Kovak. 1996.Cougar Population Characteristics in Southeastern British Columbia.Journal of Wildlife Management 60 (4): 962-969.(back)

78 Ross, P. I. and M. G. Jalkotzy. 1992.Characteristics of a hunted population of cougars in southwestern Alberta.Journal of Wildlife Management 56 (3): 417-426.(back)

79 Frey, S. N. and M. R. Conover. 2006.Habitat use by meso-predators in a corridor environment.Journal of Wildlife Management 70(4): 1111-1118.(back)

80 Jones, D. M. and J. B. Theberge. 1982.Summer home range and habitat utilization of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in a tundra habitat northwest British Columbia, Canada.Canadian Journal of Zoology 60 (5): 807-812.(back)

81 Cypher, B. L. 2000.Effects of roads on San Joaquin kit foxes: A review and synthesis of existing data. California State University, Fresno, California. (back)

82 Gese, E. M. , O. J. Rongstad, and W. R. Mytton. 1988.Home range and habitat use of coyotes in southeastern Colorado.Journal of Wildlife Management 52 (4): 640-646.(back)

83 Andelt, W. F. and P. S. Gipson. 1979.Home range, activity, and daily movements of coyotes.Journal of Wildlife Management 43 (4): 944-951.(back)

84 Laundré, J. W. and B. L. Keller. 1984.Home range size of coyotes: A critical review.Journal of Wildlife Management 48 (1): 127-139.(back)

85 Young, B. F. and R. L. Ruff. 1982.Population dynamics and movements of black bears in east central Alberta.Journal of Wildlife Management 46 (4): 845-860.(back)

86 McCoy, K. 2005.Effects of transportation and development on black bear movement, mortality, and use of the Highway 93 corridor in northwest Montana. MSc. Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. (back)

87 Gibeau, M. L. , S. Herrero, B. N. McLellan and J. G. Woods. 2001.Managing for grizzly bear security areas in Banff National Park and the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.Ursus 12: 121-129.(back)

88 Servheen, C. 1983.Grizzly bear food habits, movements, and habitat selection in the Mission Mountains, Montana.Journal of Wildlife Management 47 (4): 1026-1035.(back)

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